nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2022‒05‒09
nine papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Lost in the Net? Broadband Internet and Youth Mental Health By Donati, Dante; Durante, Ruben; Sobbrio, Francesco; Zejcirovic, Dijana
  2. Information Technology Governance: Lessons Learned from The Covid-19 Crisis By Manal Ahdadou; Abdellah Aajly; Mohamed Tahrouch
  3. Transforming African agricultural markets through digital innovations: What we (do not) know By Abay, Kibrom A.; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Chamberlin, Jordan; Kassim, Yumna; Spielman, David J.; Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul, Jr.
  4. Epidemic Exposure, Financial Technology, and the Digital Divide By Saka, Orkun; Eichengreen, Barry; Aksoy, Cevat Giray
  5. Peculiarities of ICT adoption in Nigeria By Sunday Fakunle; Bukunmi Ajani
  6. Technology and jobs: A systematic literature review By Kerstin H\"otte; Melline Somers; Angelos Theodorakopoulos
  7. Conflicts of law in the international electronic contract By Hamza Jabir
  8. Survival Strategies under Sanctions: Firm-Level Evidence from Iran By Iman Cheratian; Saleh Goltabar; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan
  9. When Does Money Matter for Elections? By Julia Cage; Edgard Dewitte

  1. By: Donati, Dante (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Durante, Ruben (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Sobbrio, Francesco (University of Rome Tor Vergata); Zejcirovic, Dijana (University of Vienna)
    Abstract: How does the internet affect young people's mental health? We study this question in the context of Italy using administrative data on the universe of cases of mental disorders diagnosed in Italian hospitals between 2001 and 2013, which we combine with information on the availability of highspeed internet at the municipal level. Our identification strategy exploits differences in the proximity of municipalities to the pre-existing voice telecommunication infrastructure, which was previously irrelevant but became salient after the advent of the internet. We find that access to high-speed internet has a significant positive effect on the incidence of mental disorders for young cohorts but not for older ones. In particular, internet access leads to an increase in diagnoses of depression, anxiety, drug abuse, and personality disorders - for both males and females - and of eating and sleep disorders - for females only. We find similar results for urgent and compulsory hospitalizations and self-harm episodes. These results suggest that the effect of broadband is driven by a rise in the underlying prevalence of mental disorders and not merely by increased awareness about these pathologies.
    Keywords: mental health, internet, ADSL, 3G
    JEL: I12 I31 L82 L86
    Date: 2022–03
  2. By: Manal Ahdadou (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi); Abdellah Aajly; Mohamed Tahrouch
    Abstract: IT governance focuses on how to align Information Technology with the organization's goals and strategy so that the organization can deliver value from IT. During the Covid-19 crisis, many lessons and insights for ITG have come to light. As the new reality imposed by the ongoing pandemic forced businesses to continuously adopt new technologies, it has also highlighted their need for a stronger IT Governance framework to face the uncertainties and the risks that go hand in hand with IT. This paper aims to reflect on Covid-19 implications for IT Governance. Lessons learned from this crisis can help us envision and adopt an improved Information Technology Governance approach that is even more resilient to deal with future disruptions.
    Keywords: Information Technology,IT Governance,Covid-19,board of directors,Information Technology Governance
    Date: 2022–03–01
  3. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Abate, Gashaw Tadesse; Chamberlin, Jordan; Kassim, Yumna; Spielman, David J.; Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul, Jr.
    Abstract: This policy note synthesizes the key messages and lessons from existing evidence and trends in the development, deployment and scale up of ICT-enabled marketing tools. It is based on the recently published discussion paper titled “Digital tools and agricultural market transformation in Africa: Why are they not at scale yet, and what will it take to get there†. Key messages • Many digital innovations have been developed and deployed in recent years in Africa, many of which have only been implemented at pilot stages, with limited evidence of successful scaling. • There remains significant marketing and institutional constraints hindering the development of some of these digital innovations, which may further explain disparate progress in countries. • Differential access to digital innovations across genders and different typologies of households may trigger alternative variants of digital divide. • Although the landscape of digital innovations in Africa offers several reasons to remain optimistic, the prevailing disconnect between pilots and scale-ups merits further evaluation.
    Keywords: AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, CENTRAL AFRICA, EAST AFRICA, NORTH AFRICA, SOUTHERN AFRICA, WEST AFRICA, digital technology, innovation, agriculture, markets, digital divide, risk, Information and Communication Technologies, policies
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Saka, Orkun (University of London); Eichengreen, Barry (University of California, Berkeley); Aksoy, Cevat Giray (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development)
    Abstract: We ask whether epidemic exposure leads to a shift in financial technology usage and who participates in this shift. We exploit a dataset combining Gallup World Polls and Global Findex surveys for some 250,000 individuals in 140 countries, merging them with information on the incidence of epidemics and local 3G internet infrastructure. Epidemic exposure is associated with an increase in remote-access (online/mobile) banking and substitution from bank branch-based to ATM activity. The temporary nature of the effects we identify is more consistent with a demand channel rather than that of supply with high initial fixed costs. Exploring heterogeneity using a machine-learning driven approach, we find that young, high-income earners in full-time employment have the greatest tendency to shift to online/mobile transactions in response to epidemics. Baseline effects are larger for individuals with better ex ante 3G signal coverage, highlighting the role of the digital divide in adaption to new technologies necessitated by adverse external shocks.
    Keywords: epidemics, fintech, banking
    JEL: G20 G59 I10
    Date: 2022–03
  5. By: Sunday Fakunle (Redeemer's University [Lagos, Nigeria]); Bukunmi Ajani (OAU - Obafemi Awolowo University)
    Abstract: From the vantage point of social change and development, studies have indicated that applying information and communication technology (ICT) in people's daily activities has enabled human beings to amazingly achieve things that were considered unattainable a couple of centuries ago. These remarkable achievements are evident in healthcare system, education, connectivity, economic and religious activities, among others. Studies have further indicated that there is some discrepancy between the extent to which the residents of the advanced countries and developing countries respectively accept ICT use in their daily activities. Hence, the sole objective of this systematic review is to investigate the current position of ICT use by the residents of Nigeria and the socio-cultural, economic, and technical factors that influence the popularity and acceptability of the ICT use in the country. To attain this objective, relevant available previous, mainly indigenous, studies that were published from the year 2015 to the year 2021 were sought and sorted, while the integration of the relevant previous qualitative, quantitative, empirical and theoretical studies were carried out thematically. This study discovered ICT use in tertiary education, maintenance of relationship, complementing healthcare system, ensuring the safety the relatives, religious and economic activities among the residents of the country. The conclusion drawn from this systematic review was that the ICTs use has been widely accepted among Nigerians in their various social activities, however, with challenges posed by several socio-cultural, economic and technical factors.
    Keywords: ICT use,social activities,socio-cultural factors,ICT challenges,Nigeria
    Date: 2021–12–30
  6. By: Kerstin H\"otte; Melline Somers; Angelos Theodorakopoulos
    Abstract: Does technological change destroy or create jobs? New technologies may replace human workers, but can simultaneously create jobs if workers are needed to use these technologies or if new economic activities emerge. Furthermore, technology-driven productivity growth may increase disposable income, stimulating a demand-induced expansion of employment. To synthesize the existing knowledge on this question, we systematically review the empirical literature on the past four decades of technological change and its impact on employment, distinguishing between five broad technology categories (ICT, Robots, Innovation, TFP-style, Other). Overall, we find across studies that the labor-displacing effect of technology appears to be more than offset by compensating mechanisms that create or reinstate labor. This holds for most types of technology, suggesting that previous anxieties over widespread technology-driven unemployment lack an empirical base, at least so far. Nevertheless, low-skill, production, and manufacturing workers have been adversely affected by technological change, and effective up- and reskilling strategies should remain at the forefront of policy making along with targeted social support systems.
    Date: 2022–04
  7. By: Hamza Jabir (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech], UIZ - Ibn Zohr University of Agadir)
    Abstract: The twin development of the Internet and information technology, the globalisation of international economic exchanges, has changed the classic pattern of commercial relations and led to the emergence of new types of contracts. Indeed, national legislations and International conventions are trying to adapt to this evolution, but the characteristics of the Internet and its particularities, especially its dematerialization and internationality, thwart the localizing logic of international Private law. Consequently, internet actors are trying to establish adequate rules that are better adapted to the electronic environment. It is in this perspective that this article analyses the problem of applicable law in the international electronic contract.
    Abstract: Le développement jumelé de l'internet et de l'informatique, tout comme la mondialisation des échanges économiques Internationales, ont changé le schéma classique des relations commerciales et conduis à l'émergence de nouveaux types de contrats. En effet, les législations nationales et les conventions internationales essayent de s'adapter à cette évolution. Cependant, les caractéristiques de l'internet et ses particularités, notamment sa dématérialisation et l'internationalité, contrarient la logique localisatrice du droit International Privé. Par conséquent, les acteurs de l'internet tentent d'instaurer des règles adéquates qui s'adaptent mieux à l'environnement électronique. C'est dans cette optique que cet article fait l'analyse de la problématique de droit applicable dans le contrat électronique Internationale.
    Keywords: International electronic contract,Internet,applicable law,international private law,connecting factors.,éléments de rattachement.,droit international Privé,loi applicable,contrat électronique International
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Iman Cheratian; Saleh Goltabar; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan
    Abstract: Given the importance of firm strategic management in time of crises, this study investigates Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) survival strategies during the international sanctions against Iran. Using data from a questionnaire of 486 firms between December 2019 to September 2020, we found that firm strategies in reducing research and development (R&D) expenditures, marketing costs, and fixed/overhead costs and investing in information technology (IT) are positively related to their survivability. Conversely, managerial decisions to “reduce production” and “staff pay cut/freeze” have negative and significant impacts on a firm’s ability to survive during sanctions. Moreover, micro firms are more resilient than their small and medium counterparts. The findings also confirm that age has a significant and positive impact on firm survival. Finally, the results show that having a business plan, access to finance and technology, owner education, export orientation, business networking and consulting services are the key drivers of withstanding the pressure from sanctions.
    Keywords: crisis, recession, sanction, survival strategies, firm, Iran
    JEL: F51 M13 L25 L26
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Julia Cage (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Edgard Dewitte (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper studies electoral campaigns over the long run, through the lens of their spending. In particular, we ask whether changing media technologies and electoral environments have impacted patterns of campaign spending, and their correlation with electoral results. To do so, we build a novel exhaustive dataset on general elections in the United Kingdom from 1857 to 2017, which in­cludes information on campaign spending (itemized by expense categories), electoral outcomes and socio­demographic characteristics for 69,042 election­-constituency­-candidates. We start by providing new insights on the history of British political campaigns, documenting in particular the growing importance of advertising material (including via digital means), to the detriment of paid staff and electoral meetings. Using a saturated fixed effects model, we then show that there is a strong positive correlation between expenditures and votes, and that overall the magnitude of this relationship has strongly increased since the 1880s, peaking in the last quarter of the 20th century. We link these transformations to changes in the conduct of campaigns, and to the introduction of new information technologies. We show in particular that the expansion of local radio and broadband Internet increased the sensitivity of the electoral results to differences in campaign spending.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie les campagnes électorales sur le long terme, à travers le prisme de leurs dépenses. En particulier, nous investiguons l'impact des évolutions majeures dans les technologies de l'information et les contextes électoraux sur les niveaux, allocations et influences des dépenses des candidats. Pour ce faire, nous construisons un nouvel ensemble de données exhaustif sur les élections générales au Royaume­Uni de 1857 à 2017, qui comprend des informations sur les dépenses de campagne (détaillées par catégories de dépenses), les résultats électoraux et les caractéristiques socio­démographiques de 69042 candidats­-élections­-circonscriptions. Nous commençons par apporter de nouveaux éclairages sur l'histoire des campagnes politiques britanniques, en documentant notamment l'importance croissante du matériel publicitaire (y compris via des moyens numériques), au détriment du personnel rémunéré et des meetings électoraux. À l'aide d'un modèle à effets fixes, nous montrons ensuite qu'il existe une forte corrélation positive entre les dépenses des candidats et les résultats électoraux de ceux­ci, et que, dans l'ensemble, la magnitude de cette relation a fortement augmenté depuis les années 1880, pour atteindre un pic dans le dernier quart du XXe siècle. Nous lions ces transformations à des changements dans les stratégies de campagne et à l'introduction de nouvelles technologies de l'information. Nous montrons en particulier que l'expansion de la radio locale et de l'ADSL a augmenté la sensibilité des résultats électoraux aux différences de dépenses de campagne.
    Keywords: Electoral campaigns,Campaign spending,Elections
    Date: 2022–03–10

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