nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2022‒02‒21
nine papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. The Promise and Limitations of Information Technology for Tax Mobilisation By Okunogbe, Oyebola; Santoro, Fabrizio
  2. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and agricultural extension in developing countries By Spielman, David J.; Lecoutere, Els; Makhija, Simrin; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
  3. ICT and financial development: Empirical evidence from ASEAN countries By Tran, Quoc Duy; Huynh, Cong Minh
  4. The ICT, Financial Development, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus in MENA Countries: Panel CS-ARDL Evidence By Mounir Dahmani; Mohamed Mabrouki; Adel Ben Youssef
  5. The asymmetric effect of internet access on economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa By Abdulqadir, Idris; Asongu, Simplice
  6. Surveying 5G Techno-Economic Research to Inform the Evaluation of 6G Wireless Technologies By Edward J. Oughton; William Lehr
  7. Legislative and Jurisprudential Analysis Regarding the Regulation of Online Pharmacies By Cristina-Luiza Erimia
  8. Platform architectures: The structuration of platform companies on the Internet By Dolata, Ulrich; Schrape, Jan-Felix
  9. Financial determinants of informal financial development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Soumtang, Valentine; Edoh, Ofeh

  1. By: Okunogbe, Oyebola; Santoro, Fabrizio
    Abstract: Tax revenue in many low-income countries is inadequate for funding investments in public goods and human capital. While tax systems have been adopting new technologies to improve tax collection for many years, limitations to in-person interactions due to COVID-19 have further highlighted the role of information technology in tax mobilisation. This paper examines the potential of technology to transform tax administration by helping to identify the tax base, facilitate compliance, and monitor compliance. It also identifies possible limitations to the use of technology arising from inadequate infrastructure and connectivity, lack of adoption (or resistance) by taxpayers and tax collectors, lack of institutional mainstreaming, and an unsupportive regulatory environment.
    Keywords: Finance,
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Spielman, David J.; Lecoutere, Els; Makhija, Simrin; Van Campenhout, Bjorn
    Abstract: Our study focuses on a narrow class of ICT products and services: technologies related to mobile phones, services, and networks; portable devices; web-based portals, tools, and applications; and the data and information shared through these products and services via technologies as varied as interactive voice response (IVR) systems and satellite imagery. We do not consider more traditional ICTs such as radio and television programming. In addition, we focus on a core function of extension services—the promotion of productivity-enhancing agricultural technologies and practices—from which we examine the impacts of ICT-enabled extension on equity outcomes, such as changes in women’s empowerment and decision-making within households; on behavioral outcomes, such as aspiration, risk, and ambiguity preferences; and on learning outcomes, such as awareness, knowledge, and learning externalities.
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, developing countries, agricultural extension, social networks, gender, incentives, farmers, public worker incentives
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Tran, Quoc Duy; Huynh, Cong Minh
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on financial development proxied by Domestic credit/GDP and Money supply/GDP in ten ASEAN countries over the period 2000-2020. Results from fixed effects for panel data show that ICT stimulates financial development by both proxies. Remarkably, the impact of ICT on financial development proxied by Money supply/GDP is stronger than that proxied by Domestic credit/GDP, implying the important channel of Money supply/GDP through which ICT can stimulate financial development. In addition, other important determinants of financial development are confirmed in the context of ASEAN countries, including economic growth, trade openness, and urbanization. The findings consolidate the utilization of ICT to boost financial development in ASEAN countries.
    Keywords: ASEAN countries; Financial development; ICT
    JEL: L96 O16 O32 O33
    Date: 2022–01–11
  4. By: Mounir Dahmani (Université de Gafsa, Tunisie); Mohamed Mabrouki (Université de Gafsa, Tunisie); Adel Ben Youssef (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the nexus between consumption of renewable and non-renewables energies, financial development, diffusion of information and communication technology (ICT) and economic growth in the MENA countries. We employ a cross-section augmented autoregressive distributed lag (CS-ARDL) modeling approach to analyze the effect of our explanatory variables on economic growth. We find a positive impact of renewable and non-renewable energies on economic growth. Financial development is related negatively to economic growth which may be explained among other things, by a weak financial sector, macroeconomic volatility and financial crises, or the existence of non-linear relationships. We find a positive and statistically significant influence of ICT on GDP. Renewable energies and diffusion of ICT can be considered important determinants of improved economic activity, job creation and create jobs and a better environment.
    Keywords: ICT, financial development, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, MENA, dynamic panel, CS-ARDL
    Date: 2021–12
  5. By: Abdulqadir, Idris; Asongu, Simplice
    Abstract: This article investigates the asymmetric effect of internet access (index of the internet) on economic growth in 42 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over the period 2008-2018. The estimation procedure is obtained following a dynamic panel threshold regression technique via 1000 bootstrap replications and the 400 grids search developed by Hansen (1996, 1999, 2000). The investigation first explores the presence of inflection points in the relationship between internet access and economic growth through the application of Hansen's threshold models. The finding from the nonlinearity threshold model revealed a significant internet threshold-effect of 3.55 percent for growth. The article also examines the linear short-run effect of internet access on economic growth while controlling for the effects of private sector credit, trade openness, government regulation, and tariff regimes. The marginal effect of internet access is evaluated at the minimum, and the maximum levels of government regulation and tariffs regime are positive. On the other hand, the minimum and maximum levels of private sector credit and trade openness are negative via the interaction terms. The article advances the literature by its nonlinear transformation of the relevance of internet access on economic growth by exploring interactive mechanisms of: internet access versus financial resource, internet access versus trade, internet access versus government regulation, and internet access versus the tariff regimes from end-user subscriptions. In policy terms, the statistical significance of the joint impact of government regulations and tariff regimes is relevant in the operation of the telecommunication industry in SSA countries.
    Keywords: Internet access; economic growth; government regulations; trade openness; tariff regimes; sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: G2 O1
    Date: 2021–01
  6. By: Edward J. Oughton; William Lehr
    Abstract: Techno-economic assessment is a fundamental technique engineers use for evaluating new communications technologies. However, despite the techno-economics of the fifth cellular generation (5G) being an active research area, it is surprising there are few comprehensive evaluations of this growing literature. With mobile network operators deploying 5G across their networks, it is therefore an opportune time to appraise current accomplishments and review the state-of-the-art. Such insight can inform the flurry of 6G research papers currently underway and help engineers in their mission to provide affordable high-capacity, low-latency broadband connectivity, globally. The survey discusses emerging trends from the 5G techno-economic literature and makes five key recommendations for the design and standardization of Next Generation 6G wireless technologies.
    Date: 2022–01
  7. By: Cristina-Luiza Erimia (Ovidius University of Constanta, Faculty of Pharmacy, Constanta, Romania)
    Abstract: As a result of the evolution of information and communication technologies, medicines, like other goods, are now increasingly marketed on the EU internal market through these channels. When examining the compatibility of the conditions for the supply of retail medicinal products with European Union law, the Court of Justice has recognized the specific nature of medicinal products, whose therapeutic effect significantly distinguishes them from other goods. Taking into account all these aspects, this article aims to analyze the centralized regulation of online pharmacies in relation to European Union law, the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union, as well as the legislative measures taken at national level to provide medicinal products to the population through the Internet.
    Keywords: European legislation, the Court of Justice of the European Union, public health, legislative initiatives, internal market, patient rights
    Date: 2021–06
  8. By: Dolata, Ulrich; Schrape, Jan-Felix
    Abstract: Today's internet is shaped largely by privately operated platforms of various kinds. This paper asks how the various commercially operated communication, market, consumption and service platforms can be grasped as a distinct organizational form of enterprise. To this end, we make a basic distinction between (1) the platform-operating companies as organizing and structuring cores whose goal is to run a profitable business, and (2) the platforms belonging to these companies as more or less extensive, rule-based and strongly technically mediated social action spaces. While platform companies are essentially organizations in an almost archetypical sense, the internet platforms they operate constitute socio-technically structured social, market, consumption or service spaces in which social actors interact on the basis of detailed and technically framed rules, albeit, at the same time, in a varied and idiosyncratic manner. The thesis of this paper is that the coordination, control and exploitation mechanisms characteristic of the platform architectures are characterized by a strong hierarchical orientation in which elements of co-optation and the orchestrated participation of users are embedded. In this hybrid constellation, the platform companies have a high degree of structure-giving, rulesetting and controlling power-in addition to exclusive access to the raw data material generated there. While this power may manifest, at times, as rigid control, direct coercion or enforceable accountability, for the majority of rule-obeying users it unfolds nearly imperceptibly and largely silently beneath the surface of a (supposed) openness that likewise characterizes the platforms as technically mediated spaces for social and economic exchange.
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Asongu, Simplice; Soumtang, Valentine; Edoh, Ofeh
    Abstract: This study assesses financial determinants of informal financial sector development in 48 Sub-Saharan African countries for the period 1995-2017. Quantile regressions are used as the empirical strategy which enables the study to assess the determinants throughout the conditional distribution of informal sector development dynamics. The following financial determinants affect informal financial development and financial informalization differently in terms of magnitude and sign: bank overhead costs; net internet margin; bank concentration; return on equity; bank cost to income ratio; financial stability; loans from non-resident banks; offshore bank deposits and remittances. The determinants are presented from a plethora of perspectives, inter alia: U-Shape, S-Shape and positive or negative thresholds. The study not only provides a practical way by which to assess the incidence of financial determinants on informal financial sector development, but also provides financial instruments by which informal financial development can be curbed.
    Keywords: Informal finance; financial development; Africa
    JEL: G2 O1 O55
    Date: 2021–08

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