nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2022‒02‒07
four papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Gravity and trade in video on demand services By Annette Broocks; Zuzanna Studnicka
  2. Weather information for smallholders: Evidence from a pilot field experiment in Benin By Yegbemey, Rosaine Nérice; Bensch, Gunther; Vance, Colin
  3. Role stressors, social support and burnout among university teachers: a theoretical exploration By Mohammed Zaryouhi; Ouail El Kharraz
  4. January 6th and President Trump: A Study of Social Media in Today’s America By Alex Sung; David Douglas Klein

  1. By: Annette Broocks (European Commission - JRC); Zuzanna Studnicka (School of Economics, University College Dublin)
    Abstract: Over the last decade, watching videos online has become one of the primary uses of the internet, with streaming services accounting for more than 60% of global internet traffic. In this paper we use a novel data set on Netflix, the largest streaming platform worldwide, to estimate the patterns of catalogue availability (extensive margin) and number of clicks per title (intensive margin) across twenty countries. This data set also gives us a unique opportunity to estimate the importance of quality in viewing patterns. Our results show evidence of the gravity framework explaining both margins of Netflix watching. In addition, we find that there is a strong preference for domestic content, better-rated titles, and Netflix Original productions. These findings suggest that as Netflix produces more content, this will interact with its streaming dominance to provide a significant advantage in reaching viewers and promoting specific content.
    Keywords: Netflix; subscription video on demand; gravity equation; services trade
    JEL: F10 L82 Z10
    Date: 2021–12
  2. By: Yegbemey, Rosaine Nérice; Bensch, Gunther; Vance, Colin
    Abstract: Weather conditions are an important determinant of agricultural factor input, particularly labor allocation. The availability of weather forecasts can therefore lead to efficiency gains in the form of cost decreases and productivity increases. We test the practical feasibility, the uptake, and the effect of providing basic weather forecasts in the rainy season on the labor productivity of smallholder farmers. For this purpose, we conducted a Randomized Controlled Trial as a pilot with monthly data collections involving 331 farmers across six villages in north Benin. We find that most farmers subscribe to the intervention and report satisfaction with the service. The impact estimates indicate positive and economically significant intention-to-treat and local average treatment effects on labor productivity for maize and cotton cultivation. These findings suggest that weather-related information and mobile phone outreach help smallholder farmers to better adapt to changing weather.
    Keywords: Pilot field experiment,climate and weather information,labor productivity,smallholder farming,information technology,impact evaluation
    JEL: D13 O12 Q12
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Mohammed Zaryouhi (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi); Ouail El Kharraz (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi)
    Abstract: Burnout research identifies highly exposed occupations such as the university teacher. A profession previously perceived as low-stressfull, has changed over the past 20 years. The high expectations of students, the reform of the university, the Information and Communication Technologies, and the increasingly globalized nature of research have completely transformed this profession. As a result, the university teacher finds himself at the intersection of pressures, increasing job demands and a lack of resources. However, theoretical models dealing with the impact of demands and resources on burnout tend to tackle these effects independently. Indeed, the relationship between demands, resources, and burnout is a major concern for organizations as well as for researchers and practitioners, even if its interest and issues are more recent for the university sector.By theoretically exploring the links that may exist between role stressors, social support, political skills and burnout.Our results indicate the sequence of relationships between variables. Thus, role stressors act as independent variables in our thoeritical model, social support and political competence are moderators, and burnout is the work outcome we seek to explain. This study provides a more holistic and integrated view of the relationship between job demands, job resources, personal resources and burnout. A future research direction are presented in conclusion.
    Abstract: Les recherches sur le burnout permettent d'identifier des métiers fortement exposés tels que le métier d'enseignantchercheur. Une profession autrefois perçue comme peu stressante a changé au cours des 20 dernières années. Les attentes d'étudiants de plus en plus exigeantes, la réforme de l'université, les technologies d'information et de la communication, le caractère de plus en plus mondialisé de la recherche ont complètement transformé ce métier. Conséquemment, l'enseignant chercheur se retrouve à la croisée des pressions, une augmentation des exigences au travail et un déficit des ressources. Cependant, les modèles théoriques traitant de l'impact de demandes et de ressources sur le burnout tendent à traiter de ces effets de manière indépendante. En effet, le rapport entre les exigences, les ressources, et le burnout constitue l'une des grandes préoccupations tant pour les organisations que pour les chercheurs et praticiens, même si son intérêt et les enjeux qu'il comporte sont plus récents pour le secteur universitaire. En explorant théoriquement les liens susceptibles d'exister entre les stresseurs de rôles, le soutien social, les compétences politiques et le burnout. Nos résultats indiquent la séquence des relations entre les variables. Ainsi, les stresseurs de rôle agissent comme des variables indépendantes dans notre modèle, le soutien social et les compétences politiques constituent des modérateurs, et le burnout est la résultante de travail que l'on cherche à expliquer. La présente étude apporte une vision plus holistique et intégrée des relations entre les exigences, ressources au travail, ressources personnelles et le Burnout. Des pistes de recherche future sont offertes en conclusion.
    Keywords: burnout,Social support,Political skills,University teacher,Role stressors,soutien social,Burnout,enseignant-chercheur,Stresseurs de rôle,compétences politiques
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Alex Sung (Student USA); David Douglas Klein (Adjunct Instructor, New Jersey City University, USA,)
    Abstract: In the wake of the January 6th mob insurrection at the US Capitol, does the Federal government need to implement protocols that flag insurrection and domestic terrorism on social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter? The US Supreme Court protects Free Speech on privately owned media, but the most popular Internet sites have evolved by 2021 to become wide-spread spaces for public and private communication. Currently, these global platforms are permitted to selectively censor and regulate speech at their discretion without infringing upon First Amendment rights. The ubiquity of social media means that the publicly-available speech (e.g. posts) of Twitter and Facebook’s billions of users is controlled by what’s recently called by Congressional critics and commentators as “Big Tech†. The most recent President of the United States Donald Trump was permanently banned from the largest social media platforms. On July 7, 2021 he filed class-action lawsuits targeting Facebook, Google (owner of YouTube) and Twitter. Many Americans with conservative views feel social media silence their voices, while those with liberal views argue that social media platforms do not eliminate hate speech. This paper will delve into whether increased government oversight and applying the rights of the First Amendment to individuals online can maintain peaceful public discourse, avoiding any future violence. The paper will also provide an overview of the essential legal hurdles the Trump lawsuit faces but will not analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the Trump case.
    Keywords: censorship, social media, January 6 riot, free speech rights, Trump ban, Facebook, Twitter, political bias
    Date: 2021–08

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