nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2021‒08‒23
eight papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. How the Past of Outsourcing and Offshoring is the Future of Post-Pandemic Remote Work: A Typology, a Model, and a Review By Erickson, Christopher; Norlander, Peter
  3. Decent work and Safe Work: A Case study of IT Industry By NAUSHEEN, NIZAMI
  4. Tilted Platforms: Rental Housing Technology and the Rise of Urban Big Data Oligopolies By Geoff Boeing; Max Besbris; David Wachsmuth; Jake Wegmann
  5. Study on the Usability of Online Test Websites By Chen, Yen Tzu; Liu, Che Hung; Chen, Ho Ming
  6. Third-Degree Price Discrimination in the Age of Big Data By Charlson, G.
  7. Information Markets and Nonmarkets By Dirk Bergemann; Marco Ottaviani
  8. Soft and hard information in equity crowdfunding: network effects in the digitalization of entrepreneurial finance By Khavul, Susanna; Estrin, Saul; Wright, Mike

  1. By: Erickson, Christopher; Norlander, Peter
    Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) challenges traditional assumptions about the capacity to manage workers beyond organizational and physical boundaries. A typology connects a variety of non-traditional work organizations made possible by ICT, including offshoring, outsourcing, remote work, virtual companies, and platforms. A model illustrates how new technology serves as a proximate cause for a revision of social contracts between capital, labor and government reached through bargaining, and how external shocks such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the institutional environment, and limitations in practice influence how technology changes the organization of work. An historical case illustrates the general features of the model, and a review of the outsourcing and offshoring literature provides instructive examples of how features of the model will potentially influence the future of post-pandemic remote work.
    Keywords: information and communication technology,institutional change,offshoring,outsourcing,remote work
    JEL: J60 J50 J44 J22 O30 R12
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Yassine Boussenna (GRMSI - UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"- - UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"-); Ouail El Kharraz (GRMSI - UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"- - UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"-)
    Abstract: The main objective of this study was to verify the moderating role of Information Technology on the relationship between KM implementation and organizational performance in a university context through Abdelmalek Essaadi University. by collecting the views of teacher-researchers, using a hypothetical-deductive reasoning approach and a quantitative working method. Our questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of 88 teacher-researchers from the different institutions of the university under study. The results obtained using Hierarchical regression prove the moderating and positive role of Information technology on the intensity of the relationship between the application of the KM and (Training, research, publication, and governance) as indicators of organizational performance with a change in the correlation rate from R=0.917 to R=0.974 with the addition of leadership as a moderator variable with a degree of impact of 5.7%. This paper presents empirical evidence on the importance of the organizational, technical, and human factors on knowledge management implementation and enhancing performance.
    Keywords: organizational performance,Information Technology,knowledge management
    Date: 2021
    Abstract: Workers are the backbone of an industry as well as an economy. Accelerating growth requires ensuring, understanding and managing life of workers when they are at work. This paper analyses the meaning and importance of safe work in Information Technology industry where work is rendered in apparently safe environment. IT industry has been chosen as it apparently offers highly remunerative packages but compromises on some of the essentials of decent work. One of the dimensions of decent work is safe work. In this paper, work safety has been measured on the basis of rudimentary statistical tools and non-parametric tests. Primary data collected from 272 IT employees by using snowball sampling technique and a well-designed questionnaire have been used for developing Safe work Index (SWI) on the lines of decent work agenda of the International Labour Office. Findings reveal deficit of safe work in IT companies and deteriorating health status of IT employees which has implications for the social health of the nation. The nature of work in IT industry which requires longer hours at work, constant sitting posture and working on computer screens has started playing havoc among the employees of younger age group and calls for attention for provision of decent ergonomic furniture and timely breaks from a sitting posture. The paper concludes with suggestive measures for the same.
    Date: 2021–07–15
  4. By: Geoff Boeing; Max Besbris; David Wachsmuth; Jake Wegmann
    Abstract: This article interprets emerging scholarship on rental housing platforms -- particularly the most well-known and used short- and long-term rental housing platforms - and considers how the technological processes connecting both short-term and long-term rentals to the platform economy are transforming cities. It discusses potential policy approaches to more equitably distribute benefits and mitigate harms. We argue that information technology is not value-neutral. While rental housing platforms may empower data analysts and certain market participants, the same cannot be said for all users or society at large. First, user-generated online data frequently reproduce the systematic biases found in traditional sources of housing information. Evidence is growing that the information broadcasting potential of rental housing platforms may increase rather than mitigate sociospatial inequality. Second, technology platforms curate and shape information according to their creators' own financial and political interests. The question of which data -- and people -- are hidden or marginalized on these platforms is just as important as the question of which data are available. Finally, important differences in benefits and drawbacks exist between short-term and long-term rental housing platforms, but are underexplored in the literature: this article unpacks these differences and proposes policy recommendations.
    Date: 2021–08
  5. By: Chen, Yen Tzu; Liu, Che Hung; Chen, Ho Ming
    Abstract: Online test websites can provide a more convenient and efficient dynamic learning approach and personalized learning services, which is one of the important approaches to digital learning. However, the usability of online test websites affects users’ learning efficacy. This study explored the impact of the usability of online test websites on users, and the results can help website operators seeking to improve the websites’ usability. Based on the relevant literature, this study synthesized three major metrics of the usability of online test websites and summarized typical work priorities of such websites to design usability test items. The study considered one online test website: A Remedial Education Institution for Learners to Take Civil Service Examination. The results show that, with respect to usability, the website still has quite a few deficiencies that affect users’ effectiveness and efficiency when using the website and cause users to be less satisfied with the website. Based on these results, this study offered four specific recommendations for improving effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in terms of the usability of the online test website: enhancing interaction and instructions, following the inertia of interface use, simplifying information organization, and diversifying information content.
    Date: 2021–08–05
  6. By: Charlson, G.
    Abstract: A platform holds information on the demographics of its users and wants maximise total surplus. The data generates a probability over which of two products a buyer prefers, with different data segmentations being more or less informative. The platform reveals segmentations of the data to two firms, one popular and one niche, preferring to reveal no information than completely revealing the consumer's type for certain. The platform can improve profits by revealing to both firms a segmentation where the niche firm is relatively popular, but still less popular than the other firm, potentially doing even better by revealing information asymmetrically. The platform has an incentive to provide more granular data in markets in which the niche firm is particularly unpopular or in which broad demographic categories are not particularly revelatory of type, suggesting that the profit associated with big data techniques differs depending on market characteristics.
    Keywords: Strategic interaction, network games, interventions, industrial organisation, platforms, hypergraphs
    JEL: D40 L10 L40
    Date: 2021–08–19
  7. By: Dirk Bergemann (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Marco Ottaviani (Department of Economics, Bocconi University)
    Abstract: As large amounts of data become available and can be communicated more easily and processed more e¤ectively, information has come to play a central role for economic activity and welfare in our age. This essay overviews contributions to the industrial organization of information markets and nonmarkets, while attempting to maintain a balance between foundational frameworks and more recent developments. We start by reviewing mechanism-design approaches to modeling the trade of information. We then cover ratings, predictions, and recommender systems. We turn to forecasting contests, prediction markets, and other institutions designed for collecting and aggregating information from decentralized participants. Finally, we discuss science as a prototypical information nonmarket with participants who interact in a non-anonymous way to produce and disseminate information. We aim to make the reader familiar with the central notions and insights in this burgeoning literature and also point to some open critical questions that future research will have to address.
    Keywords: Information, Data, Data Intermediaries, Information Markets, Information Non-markets, Science
    JEL: D82 D83 D84 G14 L86
    Date: 2021–08
  8. By: Khavul, Susanna; Estrin, Saul; Wright, Mike
    Abstract: As a digital financial innovation, equity crowdfunding (ECF) allows investors to exploit the complementarity of information provision and network effects in a reduced transaction cost environment. We build on the underlying distinction between soft and hard information and show that ECF platforms create an environment of greater information pooling that benefits from network externalities. We test our hypotheses using a unique proprietary dataset and find that soft information has a greater impact than hard on the likelihood that a financing pitch will be successful. Moreover, the effects of soft information are amplified by the size of the investor network on the platform and network size also positively moderates the effect of information on the amount invested during each pitch. We conclude that ECF platforms can successfully exploit low transaction costs of the digital environment and bring network externalities to bear on investor decisions. Taken together that these increase the supply of funds to entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: equity crowdfunding; entrepreneurial finance; soft information; network externalities; platforms; e Research Infrastructure and Investment Fund; Centre for Economic Performance; Springer deal
    JEL: G23 J26 M13
    Date: 2021–08–03

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