nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2021‒06‒28
sixteen papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Effects of Technostress in the Role Stress Context on Proximity Managers’ Performance By Min Feng; Driss Bourazzouq
  2. The drivers of cyber risk By Aldasoro, Inaki; Gambacorta, Leonardo; giudici, paolo; Leach, Thomas
  3. Is Europe prepared to go digital? Making the case for developing digital capacity: an exploratory analysis of Eurostat survey data By van Kessel, Robin; Wong, Brian Li Han; Rubinic, Ivan; Czabanowska, Katarzyna
  4. Organisational changes and long-term sickness absence and injury leave: a difference in difference approach By Mohamed Ali Ben Halima; Nathalie Greenan; Joseph Lanfranchi
  5. Linear and non-linear effects of infrastructures on inclusive human development in Africa By Tii N. Nchofoung; Simplice A. Asongu; Arsène A. Njamen Kengdo; Elvis D. Achuo
  6. Fighting Technostress: A Multiple Case Study of Three French Companies By Min Feng; Driss Bourazzouq
  7. AI Watch - National strategies on Artificial Intelligence: A European perspective, 2021 edition By Vincent Van Roy; Fiammetta Rossetti; Karine Perset; Laura Galindo-Romero
  8. Is Lending Distance Really Changing? Distance Dynamics and Loan Composition in Small Business Lending By Robert M. Adams; Kenneth P. Brevoort; John C. Driscoll
  9. Analysing the digital capacity of Spanish schools using SELFIE By Castano Munoz, Jonatan; Weikert Garcia, Lilian; Herrero Ramila, César
  10. Infrastructure development as a prerequisite for structural change in Africa By Yselle F. Malah Kuete; Simplice A. Asongu
  11. Are online markets more integrated than traditional markets? Evidence from consumer electronics By Néstor Duch-Brown; Lukasz Grzybowski; André Romahn; Frank Verboven
  12. Distribution of the benefits of regulation vs. competition: The case of mobile telephony in South Africa By Ryan Hawthorne; Lukasz Grzybowski
  13. Can You Teach an Old Dog New Tricks? New Evidence on the Impact of Tenure on Productivity By Gagliardi, Nicola; Grinza, Elena; Rycx, Francois
  14. Open innovation in managerial innovation: the case of internal audit. By Stéphane Lhuillery; Marion Tellechea; Stéphanie Thiery
  15. How inclusive is online education in India: Lessons from the Pandemic By M S, Navaneeth; Siddiqui, Ismail
  16. The Electricity- and CO2-Saving Potentials Offered by Regulation of European Video-Streaming Services By Madlener, Reinhard; Sheykkha, Siamak; Briglauer, Wolfgang

  1. By: Min Feng (TSM - Toulouse School of Management Research - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon, Magellan research center - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon); Driss Bourazzouq (LAREQUOI - Laboratoire de recherche en Management - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: Managers are currently facing the challenge of information and communication technology (ICT) diversification from a managerial perspective and because of their role as an intermediary between employees and the organization. The purpose of our research is to examine the specificity of "technostress" experienced by proximity managers (PM). We develop the following research questions: What are the factors that create technostress and role stress among PMs? How do the creators of technostress influence the performance of PMs? The data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the PMs (managers or team managers) of organizations that extensively use ICT to perform their professional tasks. The return rate is almost 40%. We believe that what we consider to be the technostress creator, role stress, and PMs' performance are significantly linked. Therefore, role stress emphasizes that technostress creators negatively influence the performance of PMs when the level of role stress increases.
    Keywords: Technostress,Creator of Technostress,Role Stress,Performance,Proximity Manager,Team manager
    Date: 2021–01–01
  2. By: Aldasoro, Inaki; Gambacorta, Leonardo; giudici, paolo; Leach, Thomas
    Abstract: Cyber incidents are becoming more sophisticated and their costs difficult to quantify. Using a unique database of more than 100,000 cyber events across sectors, we document the characteristics of cyber incidents. Cyber costs are higher for larger firms and for incidents that impact several organisations simultaneously. The financial sector is exposed to a larger number of cyber attacks but suffers lower costs, on average, thanks to proportionately greater investment in information technology (IT) security. The use of cloud services is associated with lower costs, especially when cyber incidents are relatively small. As cloud providers become systemically important, cloud dependence is likely to increase tail risks. Crypto-related activities, which are largely unregulated, are particularly vulnerable to cyber attacks.
    Keywords: Bitcoin; cloud services; cryptocurrencies; cyber cost; cyber regulation; cyber risk; financial institutions
    JEL: D5 D62 D82 G2 H41
    Date: 2020–05
  3. By: van Kessel, Robin (Maastricht University); Wong, Brian Li Han; Rubinic, Ivan; Czabanowska, Katarzyna
    Abstract: Digital divides are globally recognised as a wicked problem that threatens to become the new face of inequality. They are formed by discrepancies in Internet access, digital skills, and tangible outcomes (e.g. health, economic) between populations. Previous studies indicated that Europe has an average Internet access rate of 90%, yet rarely specify for different demographics and does not report on the presence of digital skills. This exploratory analysis used the 2019 community survey on ICT usage in households and by individuals from Eurostat, which is a sample of the population aged 16-74 on Internet access and digital skills. The cross-country comparative analysis includes EEA and Switzerland. Data was collected between January and August 2019 and analysed between April and May 2021. Large differences in Internet access were observed (75-98%), especially between North-Western (94-98%) and South-Eastern Europe (75-87%). Low age, high education levels, employment, and living in an urban environment appear to positively influence the development of higher digital skills. The cross-country analysis exhibits a positive correlation between high capital stock and income/earnings and the digital skills development, while showing that the internet-access price bears marginal influence over digital literacy levels. The findings suggest Europe is current unable to host a sustainable digital society without exacerbating cross-country inequalities. Investment in building digital capacity in the general population should be the primary objective of European countries to ensure they can benefit maximally from the advancements of the Digital Era.
    Date: 2021–06–11
  4. By: Mohamed Ali Ben Halima (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Nathalie Greenan (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Joseph Lanfranchi (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - IEMN-IAE Nantes - Institut d'Économie et de Management de Nantes - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Nantes - UN - Université de Nantes - IUML - FR 3473 Institut universitaire Mer et Littoral - UBS - Université de Bretagne Sud - UM - Le Mans Université - UA - Université d'Angers - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - IFREMER - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer - UN - Université de Nantes - ECN - École Centrale de Nantes, CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé)
    Abstract: The article evaluates the impact of organisational changes on long-term sickness absence. We use a unique dataset matching a company level survey on computerisation and organisational changes with an administrative file allowing to follow up health issues in the working population. We implement a difference in difference approach using two time windows: a three years' time period after changes have occurred and another one during the implementation of changes. Guided by the perspective that organisations change through the implementation of new tools and practices, we consider Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on one hand and management tools on the other. This allows to identify three treatments according to the sets of tools implemented by companies: ICT changes only, management changes only, both ICT and management changes. We find the following core result: changes in the management dimension alone reduce long-term sickness absences when joint changes in ICT and management tools increase occupational risks. There are however gendered differences in the timing and strength of impacts as women are mainly impacted during the period when changes are implemented and impacts are stronger while men are impacted afterwards. Also, older employees seem protected against the serious health consequences of any form of changes. These results point to the need to better understand the process of organisational change (its complexity, intensity, dynamics), the gendered construction of health behaviours as well as that of technology and management tools uses in devising occupational safety and health policies targeted at evolving work environments.
    Keywords: organisational change,information and communication technologies,long-term sickness absence,gender and age behaviour
    Date: 2021–05–31
  5. By: Tii N. Nchofoung (University of Dschang , Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Arsène A. Njamen Kengdo (University of Dschang , Cameroon); Elvis D. Achuo (University of Dschang , Cameroon)
    Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to verify the linear and the non-linear effects of infrastructural development on inclusive human development in Africa. The results of the system GMM estimations show a positive effect of infrastructural development on inclusive development across all the infrastructural development indexes employed, except the ICT infrastructural composite index which presents an insignificant negative effect. Besides, a non-linear effect of infrastructures on inclusive development was established across all the infrastructure indicators except for the ICT indicator. Negative thresholds for complementary policies are established for the African Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI) and the transport index while positive thresholds are apparent for the electricity index and the water and sanitation infrastructure index (WSS). Accordingly, in order to sustain the positive incidence of the AIDI and transport index on human development, complementary policies should be engaged to avoid an overall negative effect on human development when the indexes are respectively, 31.12% and 25.56%. In the same vein, the electricity index and WSSI should exceed critical levels of respectively 49.79% and 41.92%, to engender an overall positive effect on inclusive human development.
    Keywords: Infrastructure; Inclusive development; Africa
    JEL: N67 N77 C23 I00 O55
    Date: 2021–06
  6. By: Min Feng (Centre de Recherche Magellan - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon, TSM - Toulouse School of Management Research - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon); Driss Bourazzouq (LAREQUOI - Laboratoire de recherche en Management - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: This study examined the adaptive behaviors of team managers (TMs) in the fight against technostress in the information and communication technology (ICT) environment. Based on the opinions of employees and experts, companies use exchanges, coordination, cooperation, and communications between employees and TMs as strategies for dealing with complex and stressful situations. These strategies are communicated to TMs as adequate and operational adaptive strategies, and employees then apply them. We focused on socio-technical (ST) theory, which is "an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in the workplace" (Hughes et al. 2017). Long (2013) defines "socio-technics" as the interdependence of an organization or society's social and technical aspects. Thus, "contextual dependencies inherent in [an] ST system mean that interactions among all elements within that system contribute to shaping the whole" (Sadok and Bednar 2017). Although many studies explore certain organizational aspects of the impact of work tasks and the effects of job roles, cultural deference, volition, and responsibility within an organization, the stakeholder perspective is largely ignored. Therefore, this study focused on a certain class of stakeholders (Coakes and Elliman 1999)—TMs— to bridge this literature gap. Primarily, this study answered the following questions regarding TMs: (1) What adaptive strategies do TMs adopt to manage technostress levels in an interactional environment? and (2) What coping strategies do TMs choose, given the type of coping identified? Theoretically, the study was conducted in the context of ICT management using "interdependence" (Deutsch 1973) and leader-member exchange (LMX) concepts, where information overload and technostress affect TMs (Graen and Cashman 1975). Subordinates also influence their superiors in the hierarchy of power (Blackburn, 1981); theirs is an interpersonal power relationship wherein TMs and employees depend on each other. This allowed us to describe the processes used by TMs and employees to develop various behavioral interdependencies in their respective roles. Rather than a single common type of relationship or exchange, managers develop different ones with each subordinate (Graen and Cashman 1975; Liden and Graen 1980). To express the differential relationships stemming from resource restrictions within a company, Dansereau et al. (1975) employed the vertical dyad linkage approach, a theory that deals with the individual and dyadic relationships formed between leaders and their subordinates. We conducted an empirical multiple case study to identify types of coping strategies and adopt interactional analysis, as we were interested not only in the individuals but also the interactions of this dyad's elements that help managers address technostress's negative effects.
    Date: 2021–12–12
  7. By: Vincent Van Roy (European Commission - JRC); Fiammetta Rossetti (European Commission - JRC); Karine Perset (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)); Laura Galindo-Romero (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD))
    Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming the world in many aspects. It is essential for Europe to consider how to make the most of the opportunities from this transformation and to address its challenges. In 2018 the European Commission adopted the Coordinated Plan on Artificial Intelligence that was developed together with the Member States to maximise the impact of investments at European Union (EU) and national levels, and to encourage synergies and cooperation across the EU. One of the key actions towards these aims was an encouragement for the Member States to develop their national AI strategies.The review of national strategies is one of the tasks of AI Watch launched by the European Commission to support the implementation of the Coordinated Plan on Artificial Intelligence. Building on the 2020 AI Watch review of national strategies, this report presents an updated review of national AI strategies from the EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland. By June 2021, 20 Member States and Norway had published national AI strategies, while 7 Member States were in the final drafting phase. Since the 2020 release of the AI Watch report, additional Member States - i.e. Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, and Spain - published strategies, while Cyprus, Finland and Germany have revised the initial strategies. This report provides an overview of national AI policies according to the following policy areas: Human capital, From the lab to the market, Networking, Regulation, and Infrastructure. These policy areas are consistent with the actions proposed in the Coordinated Plan on Artificial Intelligence and with the policy recommendations to governments contained in the OECD Recommendation on AI. The report also includes a section on AI policies to address societal challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change. The collection of AI policies is conducted jointly by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the OECD’s Science Technology and Innovation Directorate, while the analyses presented in this report are carried out by the JRC, with contributions from the OECD. Both institutions joined forces to ensure that the information supplied by AI Watch and the OECD AI Policy Observatory is harmonised, consistent and up to date. This report is based on the EC-OECD database of national AI policies, validated by Member States’ representatives, and it demonstrates the importance of working closely with relevant stakeholders to share lessons learned, good practices and challenges when shaping AI policies.
    Keywords: Industrial research and innovation, Financial and economic analysis, Digital Economy, ICT R&D and Innovation
    Date: 2021–06
  8. By: Robert M. Adams; Kenneth P. Brevoort; John C. Driscoll
    Abstract: Has information technology improved small businesses' access to credit by hardening the information used in loan underwriting and reducing the importance of proximity to lenders? Previous research, pointing to increasing average lending distances, suggests that it has. But this conclusion can obscure differences across loans and lenders. Using over 20 years of Community Reinvestment Act data on small business lending, we find that while average distances have increased substantially, distances at individual banks remain unchanged. Instead, average distance has increased because a small group of lenders specializing in high-volume, small-loan lending nationwide have increased their share of small business lending by 10 percentage points. Our findings imply that small businesses continue to depend on local banks.
    Keywords: Banks; Credit Card; Small Business Lending
    JEL: R21 G21 G38 L25
    Date: 2021–02–16
  9. By: Castano Munoz, Jonatan (European Commission - JRC); Weikert Garcia, Lilian (European Commission - JRC); Herrero Ramila, César (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The digitalisation of education systems is a political and social priority at European level. This report summarises the results of an inter-institutional study (European Commission JRC and Spanish Ministry of Education and VET) on the digital capacity of Spanish schools using the questionnaires of the European SELFIE tool in a representative sample of 6040 school leaders, teachers and students from 492 primary and secondary schools. The data show that, in general, the first steps of the digitalisation process have already been completed, therefore areas such as supportive uses of internet for preparation of lessons and existence of basic infrastructure obtain high scores. On the other hand, data also show areas where there is more room for improvement such as collaborative uses of digital technologies, or its application in innovative assessment procedures. The results are useful to Spanish schools that have participated in SELFIE to contextualise and interpret better their own school-report results in the light of results of similar schools. They are also useful to obtain a pre-COVID baseline situation on the digitalisation of schools that can guide policies in a pandemic situation where digital technologies play a more important role. Finally, the experience and results presented here can be useful to governments, organisations and stakeholders considering to conduct a similar exercise using the SELFIE tool.
    Keywords: SELFIE, digital capacity, digital education, schools, Spain, sample
    Date: 2021–06
  10. By: Yselle F. Malah Kuete (University of Yaoundé 2, SOA, P.O. Box 1365); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Structural change is seen by development economics theorists as a driver of sustained and sustainable economic growth. African countries that have understood this prioritize structural change policies in their national development programs in order to reduce poverty and promote employment through commodity-based industrialization. How does infrastructure development contribute to this process? The purpose of this paper is to answer this question by examining empirically whether the state of infrastructure development in Africa stimulates structural change, understood as the development of the manufacturing sector. After outlining the state of infrastructure quality in the region, and discussing some theoretical channels through which this relationship might pass, we estimate fixed effects models from 52 African countries over the period 2003-2018. Results which are robust to controlling for institutional dynamics and the natural resource curse hypothesis suggest that structural change in Africa is optimized with the development of infrastructure, particularly energy and information and communication technologies. Among other policy implications arising from these findings, the establishment of partnership projects with other developed countries in terms of superstructure for enhanced industrialization is recommended.
    Keywords: Infrastructure development, structural change, manufacturing sector, Africa
    JEL: N67 N77 C23
    Date: 2021–06
  11. By: Néstor Duch-Brown (Joint Research Centre of the European Commission); Lukasz Grzybowski (SES - Département Sciences Economiques et Sociales - Télécom ParisTech, ECOGE - Economie Gestion - I3, une unité mixte de recherche CNRS (UMR 9217) - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - X - École polytechnique - Télécom ParisTech - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IP Paris - Institut Polytechnique de Paris); André Romahn (University of Dusseldorf); Frank Verboven (KU Leuven - Catholic University of Leuven - Katholieke Universiteit Leuven)
    Abstract: Did the Internet make international markets more integrated? To address this question, we study long-term international price differences and their speed of convergence, based on a unique data base for identical goods sold in both online and traditional "brick-and-mortar" distribution channels, covering ten European countries. We find that long-term international price differences are closely comparable between both distribution channels. Furthermore, international price differences converge only slightly faster online than offline, and the differences in the international price differences between online and offline converge at a very fast rate. Finally, regardless of the distribution channel, long-term price differences are lower and converge faster within the same currency union. Our findings imply that online markets are currently not more integrated than traditional markets.
    Keywords: L13,L68,L86
    Date: 2021–07
  12. By: Ryan Hawthorne (University of Cape Town); Lukasz Grzybowski (SES - Département Sciences Economiques et Sociales - Télécom ParisTech, ECOGE - Economie Gestion - I3, une unité mixte de recherche CNRS (UMR 9217) - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - X - École polytechnique - Télécom ParisTech - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IP Paris - Institut Polytechnique de Paris)
    Abstract: We test for the distributional effects of regulation and entry in the mobile telecommunications sector in a highly unequal country, South Africa. Using six waves of a consumer survey of over 134,000 individuals between 2009-2014, we estimate a discrete choice model allowing for individual-specific price-responsiveness and preferences for network operators. Next, we use a demand and supply equilibrium framework to simulate prices and the distribution of welfare without entry and mobile termination rate regulation. We find that, in the South African context, regulation benefits consumers significantly more than entry does, and that high-income consumers and city-dwellers benefit more in terms of increased consumer surplus.
    Keywords: Mobile telecommunications,Regulation,Entry,Termination rates,Discrete choice JEL Classification: L13,L40,L50,L96
    Date: 2021–01
  13. By: Gagliardi, Nicola (Free University of Brussels); Grinza, Elena (University of Milan); Rycx, Francois (Free University of Brussels)
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the impact of workers' tenure on firm productivity, using rich longitudinal matched employer-employee data on private Belgian firms. We estimate a production function augmented with a firm-level measure of tenure. We deal with endogeneity, which arises from unobserved firm heterogeneity and reverse causality, by applying a modified version of Ackerberg et al.'s (2015) control function method, which explicitly removes firm fixed effects. Consistently with recent theoretical predictions, we find that tenure exhibits an inverted-U-shaped relationship with respect to productivity. The existence of decreasing marginal returns to tenure is corroborated in our analysis on the tenure composition of the workforce. We also find that the impact of tenure differs widely across workforce and firm dimensions. Tenure is particularly beneficial for productivity in contexts characterized by a certain degree of routineness and lower job complexity. Along the same lines, our findings indicate that tenure exerts stronger (positive) impacts in industrial and high capital-intensive firms, as well as in firms less reliant on knowledge- and ICT-intensive processes.
    Keywords: tenure, firm productivity, semiparametric methods to estimate production functions, longitudinal matched employer-employee data
    JEL: D24 M59
    Date: 2021–05
  14. By: Stéphane Lhuillery; Marion Tellechea; Stéphanie Thiery
    Abstract: Research on innovation has grown into a substantial body of literature and has drawn attention to knowledge sources. However, little is known about the drivers of audit innovation. This article seeks to identify, delineate and categorize knowledge sources’ impact on internal audit innovation. We implement an econometric model and find that internal audit departments developing search capabilities to modify their processes can innovate in their practices. Using the original measures of internal search capabilities and innovation, our findings highlight the effects of search, intrafirm and external knowledge sources on internal audit innovation: among intrafirm knowledge sources, management’s reviews of internal audit functions are key factors that foster innovation. Among external sources, professional associations play a prominent role in firms’ propensity to innovate. Most noticeably, firms with high absorptive capabilities deliberately deviate from compliance to innovate using professional associations’ and ICT consultants’ knowledge. Our study contributes to the literature on open innovation and auditing by illuminating internal audit functions’ innovative potential.
    Keywords: internal audit; open innovation; search; internal knowledge sources; external knowledge sources; absorptive capacity.
    JEL: O3
    Date: 2021
  15. By: M S, Navaneeth; Siddiqui, Ismail
    Abstract: Online education has acquired a renewed interest all over the world, due to the ravaging restrictions imposed by the Covid pandemic. In the Indian context, the question remains is that “is the online medium inclusive enough to be deemed a solution?” As classes shift online and pedagogy relies on technology, it becomes imperative to ensure that no one lags behind and education remains accessible to the last learner. The issue of universality of the access to the Internet in India mingles with various socio-economic disparities that hinder its progress. This paper attempts to analyse and bring forward the factors that may contribute to the stark contrasts with regards to the success of the online education scene in India, ranging from accessibility, gender, socio-economic factors to the policy issues.
    Date: 2020–10–04
  16. By: Madlener, Reinhard (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)); Sheykkha, Siamak (E.ON Energy Research Center, Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN)); Briglauer, Wolfgang (Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: Massive increases in Internet data traffic over the last years have led to rapidly rising electricity demand and CO2 emissions, giving rise to environmental externalities and network congestion costs. One particular concern is the rise in data traffic generated by video-streaming services. We analyze the electricity-saving potential related to video streaming in Europe from 2020 to 2030. To this end, three trend scenarios (Business-as-usual, Gray, and Green) are considered and modeled bottom-up, taking specific energy consumption (and trends) of data transmission networks, end-use devices, and data centers into account. Using these scenarios, we examine in more detail the approximate energy-saving impact that regulatory interventions and technical standards can have on the electricity consumption of end-users, network operators, and data centers. The model results reveal that regulatory intervention can have a significant impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions. As technical regulation carries the risk of stymieing innovation and dynamic efficiency, we propose economic regulation in terms of a mandatory transit fee as a long-term solution.
    Keywords: Video streaming; Scenario analysis; Electricity-saving potential; Energy efficiency improvement; User behavior; Market failure; Internet traffic regulation
    JEL: D62 L82 L96 O33 O52 P48 Q47 Q48
    Date: 2021–05

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