nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2021‒06‒21
eight papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Mobile technology supply factors and mobile money innovation: Thresholds for complementary policies By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  2. Employment and Productivity Dynamics and Patent Applications Related to the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Japanese) By IKEUCHI Kenta
  3. Artificial intelligence masters’ programmes - An analysis of curricula building blocks By Juan Manuel Dodero
  4. Effects of Technostress in the Role Stress Context on Proximity Managers' Performance By Min Feng; Driss Bourazzouq
  5. Cybersecurity and Sustainable Development By Adam Sulich; Malgorzata Rutkowska; Agnieszka Krawczyk-Jezierska; Jaroslaw Jezierski; Tomasz Zema
  6. Linear and non-linear effects of infrastructures on inclusive human development in Africa By Tii N. Nchofoung; Simplice A. Asongu; Arsène A. Njamen Kengdo; Elvis D. Achuo
  7. Infrastructure development as a prerequisite for structural change in Africa By Yselle F. Malah Kuete; Simplice A. Asongu
  8. Sustainable Consumption and Mass Communication: A German Experiment By L Reisch; Clive L. Spash; Sabine Bietz

  1. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: This study complements the extant literature by assessing how enhancing supply factors of mobile technologies affect mobile money innovations for financial inclusion in developing countries. The mobile money innovation outcome variables are: mobile money accounts, the mobile phone used to send money and the mobile phone used to receive money. The mobile technology supply factors are: unique mobile subscription rate, mobile connectivity performance, mobile connectivity coverage and telecommunications (telecom) sector regulation. The empirical evidence is based on quadratic Tobit regressions and the following findings are established. There are Kuznets or inverted shaped nexuses between three of the four supply factors and mobile money innovations from which thresholds for complementary policies are provided as follows: (i) Unique adults’ mobile subscription rates of 128.500%, 121.500% and 77.750% for mobile money accounts, the mobile used to send money and the mobile used to receive money, respectively; (ii) the average share of the population covered by 2G, 3G and 4G mobile data networks of 61.250% and 51.833% for the mobile used to send money and the mobile used to receive money, respectively; and (iii) a telecom sector regulation index of 0.409, 0.283 and 0.283 for mobile money accounts, the mobile phone used to send money and the mobile phone used to receive money, respectively. Some complementary policies are discussed, because at the attendant thresholds, the engaged supply factors of mobile money technologies become necessary, but not sufficient conditions of mobile money innovations for financial inclusion.
    Keywords: Mobile money; technology diffusion; financial inclusion; inclusive innovation
    JEL: D10 D14 D31 D60 O30
    Date: 2021–01
  2. By: IKEUCHI Kenta
    Abstract: In recent years, the development of new digital-related technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and Internet-of Things (IoT) and their industrial applications have been attracting attention. These technological developments collectively are called the "Fourth Industrial Revolution" which is set to bring about major changes in industrial structure. On the other hand, previous research using national / industrial level data has pointed out that progress in digitization widens the productivity gap between companies and reduces the dynamics of the market. Therefore, this research analyzes the relationship between the development of technologies related to the Fourth Industrial Revolution such as artificial intelligence and IoT and market dynamics using Japanese firm-level micro datasets. The patent data is combined with the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities, Census of Manufacture, Economic Census for Business Frame, Economic Census for Business Activity and Establishment and Enterprise Census of Japan to build firm-level panel data and to examine how the research and development activities related to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, such as artificial intelligence and IoT, are associated with the productivity and employment growth of business establishments and firms, and discuss the policy implications. The results of this study show that the development of technologies related to the Fourth Industrial Revolution such as AI and IoT are associated with the dynamics of productivity and employment in firms. The development of AI-related technologies has particularly benefited large firms, with limited benefits to small and medium-sized firms.
    Date: 2021–03
  3. By: Juan Manuel Dodero (School of Engineering - University of Cadiz)
    Abstract: This report identifies building blocks of master programs on Artificial Intelligence (AI), on the basis of the existing programs available in the European Union. These building blocks provide a first analysis that requires acceptance and sharing by the AI community. The proposal analyses first, the knowledge contents, and second, the educational competences declared as the learning outcomes, of 45 post-graduate academic masters’ programs related with AI from universities in 13 European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden in the EU; plus Switzerland and the United Kingdom). As a closely related and relevant part of Informatics and Computer Science, major AI-related curricula on data science have been also taken into consideration for the analysis. The definition of a specific AI curriculum besides data science curricula is motivated by the necessity of a deeper understanding of topics and skills of the former that build up the foundations of strong AI versus narrow AI, which is the general focus of the latter. The body of knowledge with the proposed building blocks for AI consists of a number of knowledge areas, which are classified as Essential, Core, General and Applied. First, the AI Essentials cover topics and competences from foundational disciplines that are fundamental to AI. Second, topics and competences showing a close interrelationship and specific of AI are classified in a set of AI Core domain-specific areas, plus one AI General area for non-domain-specific knowledge. Third, AI Applied areas are built on top of topics and competences required to develop AI applications and services under a more philosophical and ethical perspective. All the knowledge areas are refined into knowledge units and topics for the analysis. As the result of studying core AI knowledge topics from the master programs sample, machine learning is observed to prevail, followed in order by: computer vision; human-computer interaction; knowledge representation and reasoning; natural language processing; planning, search and optimisation; and robotics and intelligent automation. A significant number of master programs analysed are significantly focused on machine learning topics, despite being initially classified in another domain. It is noteworthy that machine learning topics, along with selected topics on knowledge representation, depict a high degree of commonality in AI and data science programs. Finally, the competence-based analysis of the sample master programs’ learning outcomes, based on Bloom’s cognitive levels, outputs that understanding and creating cognitive levels are dominant. Besides, analysing and evaluating are the most scarce cognitive levels. Another relevant outcome is that master programs on AI under the disciplinary lenses of engineering studies show a notable scarcity of competences related with informatics or computing, which are fundamental to AI.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence, competence-based curriculum, master program, higher education, digital skills
    Date: 2021–05
  4. By: Min Feng (Centre de Recherche Magellan - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon, Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon, TSM - Toulouse School of Management Research - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Driss Bourazzouq (LAREQUOI - Laboratoire de recherche en Management - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Université Paris-Saclay)
    Abstract: Managers are currently facing the challenge of information and communication technology (ICT) diversification from a managerial perspective and because of their role as an intermediary between employees and the organization. The purpose of our research is to examine the specificity of "technostress" experienced by proximity managers (PM). We develop the following research questions: What are the factors that create technostress and role stress among PMs? How do the creators of technostress influence the performance of PMs? The data were collected through questionnaires distributed to the PMs (managers or team managers) of organizations that extensively use ICT to perform their professional tasks. The return rate is almost 40%. We believe that what we consider to be the technostress creator, role stress, and PMs' performance are significantly linked. Therefore, role stress emphasizes that technostress creators negatively influence the performance of PMs when the level of role stress increases.
    Abstract: Les gestionnaires sont actuellement confrontés au défi de la diversification des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) d'un point de vue managérial et en raison de leur rôle d'intermédiaire entre les employés et l'organisation. Le but de notre recherche est d'examiner la spécificité de la «technostress» vécue par les managers de proximité (PM). Nous développons les questions de recherche suivantes: Quels sont les facteurs qui créent un stress technologique et un stress de rôle chez les PM? Comment les créateurs de technostress influencent-ils la performance des PM? Les données ont été collectées au moyen de questionnaires distribués aux PM (managers ou chefs d'équipe) des organisations qui utilisent largement les TIC pour accomplir leurs tâches professionnelles. Le taux de retour est de près de 40%. Nous pensons que ce que nous considérons comme le créateur de technostress, le stress de rôle et la performance des PM sont étroitement liés. Par conséquent, le stress de rôle souligne que les créateurs de technostress influencent négativement la performance des PM lorsque le niveau de stress de rôle augmente.
    Keywords: Technostress,Creator of Technostress,Role Stress,Performance,Proximity Manager
    Date: 2021–01–01
  5. By: Adam Sulich; Malgorzata Rutkowska; Agnieszka Krawczyk-Jezierska; Jaroslaw Jezierski; Tomasz Zema
    Abstract: Growing interdependencies between organizations lead them towards the creation of inter-organizational networks where cybersecurity and sustainable development have become one of the most important issues. The Environmental Goods and Services Sector (EGSS) is one of the fastest developing sectors of the economy fueled by the growing relationships between network entities based on ICT usage. In this sector, Green Cybersecurity is an emerging issue because it secures processes related directly and indirectly to environmental management and protection. In the future, the multidimensional development of the EGSS can help European Union to overcome the upcoming crises. At the same time, computer technologies and cybersecurity can contribute to the implementation of the concept of sustainable development. The development of environmental technologies along with their cybersecurity is one of the aims of the realization of sustainable production and domestic security concepts among the EU countries. Hence, the aim of this article is a theoretical discussion and research on the relationships between cybersecurity and sustainable development in inter-organizational networks. Therefore, the article is an attempt to give an answer to the question about the current state of the implementation of cybersecurity in relation to the EGSS part of the economy in different EU countries.
    Date: 2021–05
  6. By: Tii N. Nchofoung (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Arsène A. Njamen Kengdo (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Elvis D. Achuo (University of Dschang , Cameroon)
    Abstract: The objectives of this paper are to verify the linear and the non-linear effects of infrastructural development on inclusive human development in Africa. The results of the system GMM estimations show a positive effect of infrastructural development on inclusive development across all the infrastructural development indexes employed, except the ICT infrastructural composite index which presents an insignificant negative effect. Besides, a non-linear effect of infrastructures on inclusive development was established across all the infrastructure indicators except for the ICT indicator. Negative thresholds for complementary policies are established for the African Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI) and the transport index while positive thresholds are apparent for the electricity index and the water and sanitation infrastructure index (WSS). Accordingly, in order to sustain the positive incidence of the AIDI and transport index on human development, complementary policies should be engaged to avoid an overall negative effect on human development when the indexes are respectively, 31.12% and 25.56%. In the same vein, the electricity index and WSSI should exceed critical levels of respectively 49.79% and 41.92%, to engender an overall positive effect on inclusive human development.
    Keywords: Infrastructure; Inclusive development; Africa
    JEL: N67 N77 C23 I00 O55
    Date: 2021–06
  7. By: Yselle F. Malah Kuete (University of Yaoundé 2, SOA, P.O. Box 1365); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Structural change is seen by development economics theorists as a driver of sustained and sustainable economic growth. African countries that have understood this prioritize structural change policies in their national development programs in order to reduce poverty and promote employment through commodity-based industrialization. How does infrastructure development contribute to this process? The purpose of this paper is to answer this question by examining empirically whether the state of infrastructure development in Africa stimulates structural change, understood as the development of the manufacturing sector. After outlining the state of infrastructure quality in the region, and discussing some theoretical channels through which this relationship might pass, we estimate fixed effects models from 52 African countries over the period 2003-2018. Results which are robust to controlling for institutional dynamics and the natural resource curse hypothesis suggest that structural change in Africa is optimized with the development of infrastructure, particularly energy and information and communication technologies. Among other policy implications arising from these findings, the establishment of partnership projects with other developed countries in terms of superstructure for enhanced industrialization is recommended.
    Keywords: N67, N77, C23
    Date: 2021–06
  8. By: L Reisch; Clive L. Spash; Sabine Bietz
    Abstract: How to change economic behaviour and achieve sustainable consumption? This paper reports on using television and internet communication as a means of engaging the least interested sections of society with respect to environmental problems and sustainability issues. The theory behind developing such communication is described and the importance of social psychological factors brought to the fore. Initial results indicating the success of the approach employed in actual broadcasts on television in Germany are then reported. Some concerns over use of the media and public engagement are also discussed. This is a paper from the Socio-Economics and Environment in Discussion working paper series edited by Clive L. Spash which ran from 2007 to 2009. This particular paper appeared in August 2008 and was later published as a book chapter: Reisch, L., C. L. Spash and S. Bietz. 2010. ‘The Socio-Psychology of Achieving Sustainable Consumption: An Example Using Mass Communication’. In R. F. Holt et al. (eds), Post Keynesian and Ecological Economics: Confronting Environmental Issues, pp.178-199. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Keywords: Consumption, behaviour, choice, norms, consumer theory, environment
    JEL: A13 D11 D12 D46 D62 D64 D70 D40 Q01 Q51
    Date: 2021

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