nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2021‒06‒14
thirteen papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. The Information and Communication Technologies-Economic Growth Nexus in Tunisia: A Cross-Section Dynamic Panel Approach By Mounir Dahmani; Mohamed Mabrouki; Adel Ben Youssef
  2. The emergence of Artificial Intelligence in European regions: the role of a local ICT base By Jing Xiao; Ron Boschma;
  3. Digitization and Development: Formalizing Property Rights and its Impact on Land and Labor Allocation By beg, Sabrin
  4. ICT dynamics for gender inclusive intermediary education: minimum poverty and inequality thresholds in developing countries By Simplice A. Asongu; Mouna Amari; Anis Jarboui; Khaireddine Mouakhar
  5. Antecedents of Customer Loyalty (CL) in the Mobile Telecommunication Companies in Cameroon By Marymagdaline E. Tarkang; Ruth N. Yunji; Simplice A. Asongu; Uju V. Alola
  6. Disaggregate Consumption Feedback and Energy Conservation By Andor, Mark; Gerster, Andreas; Goette, Lorenz
  7. Bid coordination in sponsored search auctions: Detection methodology and empirical analysis By Francesco Decarolis; Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta; Ksenia Shakhgildyan
  8. The Role of Industrialisation and ICT in Africa’s Growth and Integration into Global Value Chains By Anita Prakash
  9. A Year of Online Classes Amid COVID-19 Pandemic: Advantages, Problems, and Suggestions of Economics Students at a Bangladeshi Public University By Shuchi, Musharrat Shabnam; Tabassum, Sayeda Chandra; Toufique, M. M. K.
  10. Venture Capital Booms and Startup Financing By Janeway, W.; Nanda, R.; Rhodes-Kropf, M.
  11. The role of information and communication technology in encountering environmental degradation: Proposing an SDG framework for the BRICS countries By Chien, Fengsheng; Anwar, Ahsan; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Sharif, Arshian; Razzaq, Asif; Sinha, Avik
  12. Fighting technostress: A multiple case study of three French companies By Min Feng; Driss Bourazzouq
  13. The Mobile Phone in Governance for Environmental Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Rexon T. Nting

  1. By: Mounir Dahmani (Université de Gafsa, Tunisie); Mohamed Mabrouki (Université de Gafsa, Tunisie); Adel Ben Youssef (Université Côte d'Azur, France; GREDEG CNRS)
    Abstract: The rapid diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICT) is becoming an important determinant of national economic growth. This paper examines the relationship between development of ICT and economic growth in Tunisia based on a sector analysis. We employ the common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG) and augmented mean group (AMG) methods and annual panel data for 1997 to 2017, to study the significant positive relationship between ICT and economic growth in Tunisia. Our sector analysis shows that the effect of ICT on value added is heterogenous depending on the sector of activity and provides three main findings. First, in some sectors such as financial services, transport, building and civil engineering, hotel and restaurant services and other market services ICT have a positive and significant impact on value added. These sectors benefit from use of ICT. Second, in some sectors such as trade and various manufacturing industries, ICT has a negative and significant impact on value added. These sectors need to be well organized and well managed to avoid domination by informalities. Third, in some sectors such as public administration there is a productivity paradox and despite huge investment in ICT they have no impact on value added due to the absence of a deep organizational change.
    Keywords: ICT diffusion index, capital, labor, economic growth, Tunisia, dynamic panel, cross-sectional, CCEMG, AMG
    Date: 2021–05
  2. By: Jing Xiao; Ron Boschma;
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate how a regional knowledge base in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) influences the emergence of AI technologies in European regions. Replying on patent data and studying the knowledge production of AI technologies in 233 European regions in the period of 1994 to 2017, our study reveals three results. First, ICTs are a major knowledge source of AI technologies and their importance has been increasing over time. Second, a regional knowledge base in ICTs is highly relevant for regions to engage in AI inventing. Third, the effects of regional knowledge base of ICTs are stronger for regions that recently caught up in AI inventing. Our findings suggest that ICTs play a critically enabling role for regions to diversify into AI technologies, especially in catching-up regions.
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), regional diversification, Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), technological relatedness, General Purpose Technologies (GPTs), Europe
    JEL: O33 R11 O31
    Date: 2021–05
  3. By: beg, Sabrin
    Abstract: I test the land and labor market effects of a property rights reform that computerized rural land records in Pakistan, making digitized records and automated transactions accessible to agricultural landowners and cultivators. Using the staggered roll-out of the program, I find that while the reform does not shift land ownership, landowning households are more likely to rent out land and shift into non-agricultural occupations. At the same time, cultivating households have access to more land, as rented in land and overall farm size increase. I construct measures of farmer-level TFP and marginal product of land, and demonstrate evidence of improved allocative efficiency as land is redistributed towards more productive farmers. Aggregate district-level production data suggest a reduction in the dispersion of marginal products of land and an improvement in productivity. The results have implications for both the allocation of land across farmers and the selection of labor into farming, demonstrating that agricultural land market frictions present a constraint to scale farming and structural change in developing countries.
    Keywords: Property Rights, Rural Mobility, Agricultural Land Markets, ICT in Development, Institutions, Misallocation
    JEL: O1 O10 O12 O13
    Date: 2021–01–29
  4. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Mouna Amari (University of Sfax, Tunisia); Anis Jarboui (University of Sfax, Tunisia); Khaireddine Mouakhar (Normandy Business School, France)
    Abstract: This study examines linkages between information and communication technology (ICT) dynamics, inequality and poverty in order to establish critical masses of poverty and inequality that should not be exceeded in order for ICT dynamics to promote gender inclusive education in 57 developing countries for the period 2012-2016. Poverty is measured with the poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of the population) while inequality is proxied by the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson index and the Palma ratio. The ICT dynamics are measured with ‘internet access in school’, ‘virtual social network’, ‘personal computers’ ‘mobile phone penetration’, ‘internet penetration’ and ‘fixed broadband subscriptions’. The empirical evidence is based on interactive Generalized Method of Moments estimators from which thresholds are computed contingent on the validity of tested hypotheses. First, the Gini coefficient should not exceed 0.5618 in order for ‘internet access in school’ to positively affect inclusive education. Second, the poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of the population) should remain below 33.6842% in order for ‘internet access in school’ to favorably influence inclusive education. Third, the Palma ratio should not exceed 3.3766 in order for internet penetration to favorably affect inclusive education. Fourth, for personal computers to increase inclusive education, the Gini coefficient, Palma ratio and poverty headcount (% of the population) should not exceed 0.4781, 3.5294 and 17.7272, respectively. The study confirms the significant role technological deepening plays in advancing inclusive education by means of policies that reduce poverty and income inequality, with potentially wider applicability to other developing economies. The study has provided poverty and inequality levels that should not be exceeded in order for personal computers, internet penetration and ‘internet access in school’ to promote gender inclusive education.
    Keywords: Inclusive, Education, Inequality, Technology, Thresholds
    Date: 2021–01
  5. By: Marymagdaline E. Tarkang (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey); Ruth N. Yunji (Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Uju V. Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey)
    Abstract: The mobile telecommunication (telecom) sector has become the basic source of information now-a-days especially in Cameroon. It is used to transfer and deliver information through voice, video, data, graphics, and more at perpetually increasing speeds. The quality of mobile services does not only impact the attraction of new customers but also to maintain the existing ones. The study uses relationship marketing theory and a quantitative and cross-sectional method with 200 respondents. Information was obtained from users of MTN and Orange mobile telecommunication networks. The analyses were done using SPSS version 20. Tangibility, reliability, and assurance dimensions of staff service quality showed a positive relationship with customer loyalty in mobile telecom companies in Cameroon. The findings also highlight the influence of service quality dimensions on customer loyalty in the mobile telecom companies of the country. This study complements to extant literature by examining the influence of the five service quality dimensions; tangibility, reliability, assurance, responsiveness, and empathy on consumer loyalty or retention in the mobile telecommunication companies in Cameroon.
    Keywords: Tangibility, Reliability, ICT, Empathy, Responsiveness, Assurance, customer loyalty
    Date: 2021–01
  6. By: Andor, Mark; Gerster, Andreas; Goette, Lorenz
    Abstract: Novel information technologies hold the promise to improve decision making. In the context of smart metering, we investigate the impact of providing households with appliance-level electricity feedback. In a randomized controlled trial, we find that the provision of appliance-level feedback creates a conservation effect of an additional 5% relative to a group receiving standard (aggregate) feedback. These conservation effects are largely driven by reductions in electricity use of 10% to 15% during peak hours. Consumers with appliance-level feedback hold more accurate beliefs about the energy consumption of different appliances, consistent with the mechanism in our accompanying model. Our result suggests that conservation effects from a smart-meter rollout will be much larger if appliance-level feedback can be provided. Based on a sufficient statistics approach, we estimate that appliance-level feedback could raise consumer surplus by about 570 to 600 million Euro per annum for German households.
    Keywords: consumption feedback; Disaggregation; energy conser- vation; randomized controlled trial
    JEL: D12 D83 L94 Q41
    Date: 2020–06
  7. By: Francesco Decarolis; Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta; Ksenia Shakhgildyan
    Abstract: Bid delegation to specialized intermediaries is common in the auction systems used to sell internet advertising. When the same intermediary concentrates the demand for ad space from competing advertisers, its incentive to coordinate client bids might alter the functioning of the auctions. Using proprietary data from auctions held on a major search engine, this study develops a methodology to detect bid coordination. It also presents a strategy to estimate a bound on the search engine revenue losses imposed by coordination relative to a counterfactual benchmark of competitive bidding. In the data, coordination is detected in 55 percent of the cases of delegated bidding observed and the associated upper bound revenue loss for the search engine ranges between 5.3 and 10.4 percent.
    Keywords: online advertising, sponsored search auctions, delegation, common agency
    JEL: C72 D44 L81
    Date: 2021–05
  8. By: Anita Prakash (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA))
    Abstract: Industrialisation is important for Africa’s growth and sustainable development. Deepening the manufacturing sector and greater integration in global value chains will build more resilient economies. Industrialisation will harness Africa’s huge resources – in agriculture, mining, and maritime resources, as well as a youthful labour force. Suitable and focused policies can harness these resources. African countries can leverage digitalisation and information and communication technologies to further their goal of industrialisation. Industrial development will be the key to sustained and inclusive employment-led development.
    Date: 2019–07–30
  9. By: Shuchi, Musharrat Shabnam; Tabassum, Sayeda Chandra; Toufique, M. M. K.
    Abstract: Though there have been works highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of online learning, no study focused on university-level economics students. None of the studies explored students' opinions about improving the quality and effectiveness of online classes. Many used questionable samples, closed-ended questions, and all those researches were carried out at the beginning of online classes. In this paper, we overcome these limitations of earlier studies. Using a convenience sampling technique and open-ended questions, we collect data from 154 university-level economics students after being exposed to the online class for a year. Some advantages of online classes are: students can do classes from home without being exposed to health risks, easily accessible, flexible class schedule, students remained connected with the study, it saves costs, reduce the likelihood of semester loss, easy to understand, less stressful, and learning new technologies. Major problems from students' perspectives include network problems, difficulties in understanding the topic, unsuitable for mathematical courses, concentration problem, class not interactive, financial constraint, adverse health impacts, device issues, power outages, unfamiliarity with digital technology, internet problem, and unfixed class-schedule. Disadvantages outnumbered advantages. Students made several suggestions to improve the quality and effectiveness of online classes. Some of the vital suggestions are: using state-of-the-art digital tools, recording and uploading lectures, resolving internet issues, holding classes regularly, higher efforts to make the topics easier, resolving network issues, lowering class duration, institutional support, implementing a fixed class schedule, and introducing online evaluation system.
    Keywords: COVID-19,online learning,pandemic,online education,Bangladesh,students' perceptions,higher education,distance learning,online classes
    JEL: I18 I21 I23 I28
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Janeway, W.; Nanda, R.; Rhodes-Kropf, M.
    Abstract: We review the growing literature on the relationship between venture capital booms and startup financing, focusing on three broad areas: First, we discuss the drivers of large inflows into the venture capital asset class, particularly in recent years -- which are related to but also distinct from macroeconomic business cycles and stock market fluctuations. Second, we review the emerging literature on the real effects of venture capital financing booms. A particular focus of this work is to highlight the potential impact that booms (and busts) can have on the types of firms that VCs choose to fund and terms at which they are funded, independent of investment opportunities -- thereby shaping the trajectory of innovation being conducted by startups. Third, an important insight from recent research is that booms in venture capital financing are not just a temporal phenomenon but can also be seen in terms of the concentration of VC investment in certain industries and geographies. We also review the role of government policy, exploring the degree to which it can explain the concentration of VC funding in the US over the past forty years in just two broad areas – information and communication technologies (ICT) and biotechnology. We conclude by highlighting promising areas of further research.
    Keywords: Venture capital, start-ups, innovation
    JEL: G24 L26 M13 O30
    Date: 2021–06–03
  11. By: Chien, Fengsheng; Anwar, Ahsan; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Sharif, Arshian; Razzaq, Asif; Sinha, Avik
    Abstract: Sustainability through information and communication technologies is a complex matter, raising interesting debate among researchers. Pursuing the same, this research investigates the impact of information and communication technologies, economic growth, and financial development on carbon dioxide emissions by simultaneously testing the Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in BRICS countries. In doing so, this study employs Methods of Moments - Quantile Regression, which confirms that the effects of the explanatory variables vary across different quantiles of carbon dioxide emissions. The overall results indicate that economic growth and financial development contribute to carbon dioxide emissions across all quantiles, while information and communication technologies significantly mitigate the level of carbon dioxide emissions only at lower emissions quantiles. Moreover, the results confirm the presence of the EKC hypothesis. Interestingly, the effect of economic growth and information and communication technologies on carbon dioxide emissions is lowest in magnitude at lower quantiles and highest at higher quantiles of carbon dioxide emissions. The empirical findings of DH panel heterogenous causality test confirm bidirectional causality between the model parameters, indicating that any policy intervention concerning explanatory variables significantly causes carbon dioxide emissions and vice versa. The results set out the foundation for policymakers to devise a policy framework to attain the objectives of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
    Keywords: ICT; Financial development; EKC hypothesis; CO2 emissions; BRICS; MMQR
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Min Feng (TSM - Toulouse School of Management - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Driss Bourazzouq (UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, LAREQUOI - Laboratoire de recherche en Management - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines)
    Abstract: Information overload and technostress affect team managers in information and communication technology management. This study identified coping strategies to examine the behaviors team managers adopt to address these issues and evaluated the choice of coping strategies. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted an empirical multiple case study to identify types of coping strategies and adopt an interactional analysis. Using the concepts of interdependence and leader-member exchange, three companies and 13 respondents were studied. Findings: Four coping strategies were identified: non-procedural, professional support, achievement mechanism, and mutual trust. Based on these, four new coping theories address technostress from an international perspective. Empirically, the results explain a range of team managers' behaviors, highlighting the need to adopt policies addressing the counterproductive effect of technostress. Originality/value: Although many studies explore certain organizational aspects of the impact of work tasks and other factors within an organization, the stakeholder perspective is largely ignored. Therefore, this study focused on team managers to bridge this literature gap.
    Keywords: technostress,coping strategy,interaction,team manager,interdependence,leader-member exchange (LMX),Manager de proximité,Manager global,Manager opérationnel,Le stress face aux technologies,Management & Management Techniques,Management resilience,Tic- usages,TIC et lien social,Les stratégies,Réponse au stresse
    Date: 2021–05–23
  13. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Rexon T. Nting (University of Wales, London, UK)
    Abstract: In this study, we assess how the mobile phone can be leveraged upon to improve the role of governance in environmental sustainability in 44 Sub-Saharan African countries. The Generalised Method of Moments is used to establish policy thresholds. A threshold is a critical mass or level of mobile phone penetration at which the net effect of governance on Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions changes from positive to negative. Mobile phone penetration thresholds associated with negative conditional effects are: 36 (per 100 people) for political stability/no violence; 130 (per 100 people) for regulation quality; 146.66 (per 100 people) for government effectiveness; 65 (per 100 people) for corruption-control and 130 (per 100 people) for the rule of law. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. The study provides thresholds of mobile phone penetration that are critical in complementing governance dynamics to reduce CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; ICT; Economic development; Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2021–01

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