nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2021‒03‒01
ten papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. From Unequal Access to Differentiated Use: A Literature Review and Agenda for Research on Digital Inequality By Paul DiMaggio; Eszter Hargittai; Coral Celeste; Steven Shafer
  2. Jobs Interventions For Young Women In The Digital Economy By Datta, Namita; Robinson, Danielle
  3. AI measurement in ICT usage surveys: A review By Pierre Montagnier; Irene Ek
  4. Effect of ICT on Women Entrepreneur Business Performance: Case of Malaysia By Isa, Filzah Md; Muhammad, Nik Maheran Nik; Ahmad, Azizah; Noor, Shaista; Institute of Research, Asian
  5. The Future of Work in Agriculture - Some Reflections By Christiaensen, Luc; Rutledge, Zachariah; Taylor, J. Edward
  6. Patent landscaping using 'green' technological trajectories By Nomaler, Önder; Verspagen, Bart
  7. Local entrepreneurship ecosystems and emerging industries: Case study of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, United Kingdom By OECD
  8. Mapping Organization Knowledge Network and Social Media Based Reputation Management By Andry Alamsyah; Maribella Syawiluna
  9. Cybersecurity Risk By Chris Florakis; Christodoulos Louca; Roni Michaely; Michael Weber
  10. Management, skills and productivity By Emile Cammeraat; Lea Samek; Mariagrazia Squicciarini

  1. By: Paul DiMaggio (Princeton University); Eszter Hargittai (Northwestern University); Coral Celeste (Princeton University); Steven Shafer (Princeton University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews what we know about inequality in access to and use of new digital technologies. Until recently, most research has focused on inequality in access (the "digital divide"), measured in a variety of ways. We agree that inequality of access is important, because it is likely to reinforce inequality in opportunities for economic mobility and social participation. At the same time we argue that a more thorough understanding of digital inequality requires placing Internet access in a broader theoretical context, and asking a wider range of questions about the impact of information technologies and informational goods on social inequality.
    JEL: Z11 L86
  2. By: Datta, Namita; Robinson, Danielle
    Abstract: This Jobs Solutions Note identifies practical solutions for development practitioners to proactively integrate gender inclusion in digital jobs programs. Based on curated knowledge and evidence for a specific topic and relevant to jobs, the Jobs Solutions Notes are not intended to be exhaustive; they provide key lessons, solutions and approaches synthesized from the experiences of the World Bank Group and partners. This Note draws from S4YE’s 2018 annual report, Digital Jobs for Youth: Young Women in the Digital Economy, highlighting new and emerging strategies to designing gender-inclusive digital jobs interventions for youth. The Note employs a nuanced definition of 'digital jobs' to enable practitioners and policy makers to develop a range of interventions tailored to specific contexts and target groups, to improve young women’s employment outcomes from digital jobs programs.
    Keywords: young woman; limited access to finance; youth; digital skills; labor force participation rate; income-generating opportunity; computers and the internet; project design and implementation; Fragile, Conflict & Violence; small and medium size enterprise; skill need; youth employment; skill training programs; skills and support; labor market opportunities; youth unemployment rate; self-employment and entrepreneurship; lack of content; highly skilled worker; approach to training; needs of woman; digital gender divide; availability of transport; informal labor market; barrier to woman; return on investment; private sector partner; support for entrepreneur; private sector company; women in technology; access to ict; fragile and conflict; technical skills training; creative problem solving; people with disability; Gender and ICT; opportunity for woman; civil society actor; local labor market; barriers for woman; gender mainstreaming strategy; business process outsourcing; digital economy; female entrepreneur; digital divide
    Date: 2020–04–29
  3. By: Pierre Montagnier; Irene Ek
    Abstract: This paper takes stock of official statistics on AI use in firms collected through ICT usage surveys. Its aim is to highlight statistically sound data that can be used to guide policymakers and other stakeholders in the complex field of AI. It provides a cross-country comparison of official AI measures in selected OECD countries and international organisations by reviewing the statistical AI definitions developed explicitly for measurement purposes as well as the AI questions in official ICT use surveys. Based on the results of these surveys, the paper provides an international comparison of AI uptake among firms. It also includes a brief overview of smaller-scale non-official measures of AI, which can complement official statistics. In its final part, it makes an initial attempt to match AI policy with the AI measures previously analysed, and highlights possible next steps. This paper is also a contribution to the OECD AI Policy Observatory.
    Date: 2021–03–01
  4. By: Isa, Filzah Md; Muhammad, Nik Maheran Nik; Ahmad, Azizah; Noor, Shaista; Institute of Research, Asian
    Abstract: Women entrepreneur has gained utmost importance in the past few decades in Malaysia due to their significant contribution to the country's economic development. However, few business challenges create a constant obstruction for many women entrepreneurs such as lack of ICT knowledge, time constraint to learn ICT, lack of technological expertise, etc. The present study aims to identify the effect of ICT adoption on business performance and examine how ICT usage helped them handle operational business matters. The present study adopted the qualitative research strategy, and researchers interviewed ten (10) women entrepreneurs for this study. A semi-structured interview technique was applied, and six Malay and four Chinese entrepreneurs made the study population. The result highlights that Malay and Chinese entrepreneurs use ICT in their business operation such as warehousing system, purchasing system, HRM software and accounting system, purchase order system, production system, internal communication, and AutoCAD. The present study may support the prospective entrepreneurs in considering the ICT usage to embark on technology and innovation and provide inputs to policymakers to design a proper support system for Malaysian women entrepreneurs, particularly those new entrepreneurs who are mostly young and inexperienced.
    Date: 2021–02–09
  5. By: Christiaensen, Luc; Rutledge, Zachariah; Taylor, J. Edward
    Abstract: As countries develop (and food saturation takes hold), agriculture’s role as domestic employer declines. But the broader agri-food system (AFS) also expands, and the scope for agriculture-related job creation shifts beyond the farm. Historically, technological revolutions both have shaped and have been shaped by these dynamics. Today, a digital revolution is taking hold, affecting agricultural labor and skill demands. In this process, societies evolve from having a surplus to a shortage of domestic farm labor, typically met largely by foreign agricultural wage workers. Yet, anti-immigration sentiments are flying high in migrant-destination countries, and robots in the fields and packing plants offer an alternative. Agricultural trade may be similarly challenged. In the world’s poorest countries, particularly in Africa, labor productivity in agriculture remains at historically low levels. So, what can the role of agriculture as a source of employment be in the future? This viewpoint elaborates on these trends and reviews a number of policy options, including inclusive value chain development, better immigration policies, social insurance schemes and ramp up in agricultural education and extension.
    Keywords: Agriculture; farm labor; fresh fruit and vegetable; productivity-enhancing investment; information and communication technology; analysis of panel data; early stage of development; send remittance; share of public spending; income elasticity of demand; farmer; agricultural labor; farm labor market; agricultural labor force; food supply chain; future of work; movement of worker
    Date: 2020–03–10
  6. By: Nomaler, Önder (UNU-MERIT); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We present a number of green technology patent landscaping exercises, based on a method that we developed earlier to identify the main technological trends in a very large (i.e., universal) patent citation network comprising all patented technologies. This method extracts a so-called network of main paths, where we interpret each path as a technological trajectory in the sense of Dosi (1982). We use co-occurrence on the technological trajectories as the main metric to build a network of technological relations, with green/non-green, the technology class (4-digit IPC classes) and geographical location (countries) as the main dimensions along which we observe green technology. The technology landscaping exercise visualises these networks. In this way, we draw a detailed map of green technologies (along with the particular non-green technologies that contribute thereto or benefit therefrom), in which we find both very broad and general areas (such as ICT or medical and health), and specific green technologies, such as batteries, wind power and electric vehicles. In the geography- based map, we find specific European and non-European areas. In all our landscaping maps, non-green technologies play a large role, indicating that sectoral and geographical progress in greentech cannot be fully understood independently of developments in particular fields of non-greentech technologies.
    Keywords: green technology, technological trajectories, patent citations, patent landscaping
    JEL: O31 O33 Q55
    Date: 2021–02–08
  7. By: OECD
    Abstract: This paper examines how local-level policies can strengthen entrepreneurship and innovation in the region of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough in the United Kingdom. It investigates the quality of the local entrepreneurship ecosystem for generating innovative start-ups and scale-ups and the regional conditions for generating positive industry transitions by supporting the strategic sectors of life sciences, information technologies, agri-tech and advanced manufacturing. Key areas of focus are on skills development, entrepreneurship development and knowledge exchange for local economic development. A number of policy recommendations are offered based on the analysis together with international inspiring policy practice examples.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, industry transition, knowledge exchange, regional policy, skills
    JEL: J24 L52 L53 R58
    Date: 2021–02–02
  8. By: Andry Alamsyah; Maribella Syawiluna
    Abstract: Knowledge management is an important aspect of an organization, especially in the ICT industry. Having more control of it is essentials for the organization to stay competitive in the business. One way to assess the organization's knowledge capital is by measuring employee knowledge networks and their personal reputation in social media. Using this measurement, we see how employees build relationships around their peer networks or clients virtually. We are also able to see how knowledge networks support organizational performance. The research objective is to map knowledge network and reputation formulation in order to fully understand how knowledge flow and whether employee reputation has a higher degree of influence in the organization's knowledge network. We particularly develop formulas to measure knowledge networks and personal reputation based on their social media activities. As a case study, we pick an Indonesian ICT company that actively build their business around their employee peer knowledge outside the company. For the knowledge network, we perform data collection by conducting interviews. For reputation management, we collect data from several popular social media. We base our work on Social Network Analysis (SNA) methodology. The result shows that employees' knowledge is directly proportional to their reputation, but there are different reputations level on different social media observed in this research.
    Date: 2021–02
  9. By: Chris Florakis (University of Liverpool - Management School); Christodoulos Louca (Cyprus University of Technology - Department of Commerce, Finance and Shipping); Roni Michaely (University of Geneva - Geneva Finance Research Institute); Michael Weber (University of Chicago - Booth School of Business; NBER)
    Abstract: We develop a novel firm-level measure of cybersecurity risk using textual analysis of cybersecurity-risk disclosures in corporate filings. The measure successfully identifies firms extensively discussing cybersecurity risk in their 10-K, displays intuitive relations with quantitative measures of cybersecurity risk disclosure language, exhibits a positive trend over time, is more prevalent among industries relying more on information technology systems, correlates with several characteristics linked to firms hit by cyber attacks and, importantly, predicts future cyber attacks. Stocks with high exposure to cybersecurity risk exhibit high expected returns on average, but they perform poorly in periods of increasing attention to cybersecurity risk.
    JEL: G14 G31
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Emile Cammeraat (OECD); Lea Samek (OECD); Mariagrazia Squicciarini (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper studies how industries’ investment in organisational capital (OC) and workforce skills relate to productivity, building on OECD estimates of OC, output data from the OECD Structural Analysis (STAN) database, and both cognitive and task-based skill indicators from the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The paper finds that at the industry level, workers’ numeracy and endowment of skills related to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) correlate positively with productivity, and that the positive correlation of STEM skills with productivity is generally larger for OC workers. The paper also finds evidence that skills dispersion harms industry performance. A gap between the ICT skills of OC and non-OC workers seems to trigger a “lost in translation” type of mechanism, whereby communication and information flows become less fluid and impinge upon the economic performance of sectors, correlating negatively with productivity.
    Keywords: Human Capital, ICT, Labour Productivity, Organisational Capital, Skills, STEM
    Date: 2021–02–23

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