nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2021‒01‒18
twenty papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Seizing the productive potential of digital change in Estonia By Damien Azzopardi; Patrick Lenain; Margit Molnar; Natia Mosiashvili; Jon Pareliussen
  2. Digital technology adoption, productivity gains in adopting firms and sectoral spill-overs: Firm-level evidence from Estonia By Natia Mosiashvili; Jon Pareliussen
  3. The rise of digital watchers By Till Ebner; Thomas Nellen; Jörn Tenhofen
  4. Digital opportunities for demand-side policies to improve consumer health and the sustainability of food systems By Tom Baragwanath
  5. Developing digital competence. An essential skill in remote learning By Alexandra Galbin
  6. Social Distancing during a Pandemic: The Role of Friends By Michael Bailey; Drew Johnston; Martin Koenen; Theresa Kuchler; Dominic Russel; Johannes Stroebel
  7. Scale, market power and competition in a digital world: Is bigger better? By Michael McMahon; Sara Calligaris; Eleanor Doyle; Stephen Kinsella
  8. Global systems of innovation: introductory notes on a new layer and a new hierarchy in innovation systems By Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto; Leonardo Costa Ribeiro; Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque
  9. Roads to innovation: evidence from Italy By Bottasso, Anna; Conti, Maurizio; Robbiano, Simone; Santagata, Marta
  10. Mobile work, mobile technology: consequences for decision-making By Junges, Fabio Miguel; Klein, Amarolinda Zanela; Gonçalo, Claudio Reis; Sørensen, Carsten
  11. Remittances, ICT and Pension Income Coverage: The International Evidence By David Adeabah; Simplice A. Asongu; Charles Andoh
  12. The Role of Institutional Infrastructures in Financial Inclusion-Growth Relations: Evidence from SSA By Kazeem B. Ajide; Ibrahim D. Raheem; Olorunfemi Y. Alimi; Simplice A. Asongu
  13. Entry Threat, Entry Delay, and Internet Speed: The Timing of the U.S. Broadband Rollout By Wilson, Kyle; Xiao, Mo; Orazem, Peter F.
  14. Typology of Business-Related Fake News Online: A Literature Review By Marko Selakovic
  16. Digital-marketing Methods with Consideration for the Properties of Open-air Museums: A Feasibility Study in Japan By Akihiro Abe
  17. PBL based on Chemistry laboratories at Engineering Degree By María del Mar López Guerrero; Gema López Guerrero; Miguel Hernández López; María Teresa Siles Cordero; José Gonzalez-Rodriguez
  19. Does Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) Contribute to Youth Development in Informal Farm Entrepreneurship? Evidence from Rural Communities in Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi; Simplice A. Asongu
  20. IT Shields: Technology Adoption and Economic Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic By Nicola Pierri; Yannick Timmer

  1. By: Damien Azzopardi; Patrick Lenain; Margit Molnar; Natia Mosiashvili; Jon Pareliussen
    Abstract: Technologies such as cloud computing, software to automate supplier- and customer relations, online platforms and artificial intelligence seem to offer a vast potential to boost productivity and living standards. However, aggregate productivity growth has declined sharply across the OECD over the past decades. Estonia is no exception, though it is well placed to gain from digital technology diffusion, with strong digital foundations, including advanced and secure physical and digital infrastructure and world-leading e-government services. Turning this potential into a productivity boost necessitates speeding up digital take-up also outside of the ICT sector and fostering the complementarities between digital technologies, skills and policies. Skills are high in general, and the supply of ICT specialists is picking up. There is still potential to improve digital user skills, and notably to put skills to better use by improving management skills and practices. Business-friendly regulations in general and pioneering attempts in some areas will likely spur the adoption of digital technologies. However, insolvencies are too slow and costly, command-and-control regulations relatively frequent and public ownership in network industries is high. Strengthening collaboration between industry associations, labour unions and industry clusters within technology investments, internationalisation, skill supply and management practices could help the country better realise complementarities between technologies, skills and policies, and thereby tap deeper into the productivity potential offered by digital technologies.
    Keywords: automation, Digitalisation, productivity, skills
    JEL: D24 D47 E22 J24 O33 O38
    Date: 2020–12–16
  2. By: Natia Mosiashvili; Jon Pareliussen
    Abstract: With a newly constructed firm-level dataset combining various survey- and registry data from Statistics Estonia, this paper sheds new light on the labour productivity premium from adopting digital technologies and boosting digital skill use. The productivity premium is decomposed into a direct effect benefitting the firms actually increasing their digital intensity, and an indirect effect of belonging to a sector with high digital intensity. The firm-level productivity premium of being an adopting firm is consistently positive and sizeable across different digital technologies and measures of skill intensity. The evidence also suggests positive spill-over effects in manufacturing sectors and sectors with a high routine task content and thus a high automation potential.
    Keywords: Digitalisation, productivity, skills, training
    JEL: D24 E22 J24 M53 O33
    Date: 2020–12–16
  3. By: Till Ebner; Thomas Nellen; Jörn Tenhofen
    Abstract: Many consumers use payment instruments to control their budget. Previously, such behavior has been associated with checking disposable cash ("pocket watching"). Based on recent survey data, we show that "digital watchers" have emerged, i.e., noncash payers who use digital applications to control their budget. Both watcher types have distinct characteristics. Pocket watchers tend to have lower incomes than other consumers, while digital watchers ascribe low security risk to payment cards. Watching behavior influences current and future payment behaviors. Pocket watchers use cash more intensively than nonwatching cash payers. Digital watchers expect to intensify their reliance on noncash payment instruments more strongly than nonwatching noncash payers.
    Keywords: Payment behavior, control motive, pocket watcher, digital watcher, survey data, central bank digital currency
    JEL: D14 E41 O33 G20
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Tom Baragwanath
    Abstract: Digital tools and technologies can assist governments to improve consumer health and the sustainability of food systems. These tools can be used to encourage consumers to buy healthy and nutritious foods and foods produced through sustainable farming practices, as well as to reduce asymmetries of food labelling schemes. They also contribute to more effective food data collection systems that can inform policy decisions, including by combining commercial sales information with national dietary intake survey data. Given the diverse approaches to adopting these digital tools, there is scope for cross-country learning. Current use of digital technologies by some governments ‒ from national dietary guideline websites to dedicated mobile apps ‒ can serve as references for other countries that seek to develop their own digital programmes. While these tools offer useful mechanisms for advancing policy objectives, they will need to be carefully designed to maximisetheir effectiveness and regularly evaluated to avoid excess cost and duplication.
    Keywords: behavioural insights, dietary intake surveys, food waste labelling, obesity
    JEL: I18 M38 O38 Q18
    Date: 2021–01–14
  5. By: Alexandra Galbin (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania)
    Abstract: The paper brings into discussion the importance of digital competence in education. Since the pandemic caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, the need of doing online education has become essential for remote learning. It is widely known that online education provides opportunities for children, and it allows them to have access to more information. Within this new context, the situation shows us obvious gaps in education. Many children without appropriate devices weren?t able to participate on lessons, parents were overwhelmed, and a lot of teachers faced different challenges: how to adapt the curriculum, how to create interactive interactions and ensuring daily wellness, how to motivate children to participate, how to keep in touch with vulnerable children. In this line, the paper presents the importance of developing digital competence for improving the remote learning experience, including families, children and school staff, thus providing a quality inclusive education.Keywords: digital competence, remote learning, inclusive education Acknowledgement: This work was co-funded by the European Social Fund, through Operational Programme Human Capital 2014-2020, project number POCU/380/6/13/123623, project title
    Keywords: digital competence, remote learning, inclusive education
    JEL: I24
  6. By: Michael Bailey; Drew Johnston; Martin Koenen; Theresa Kuchler; Dominic Russel; Johannes Stroebel
    Abstract: We explore how social network exposure to COVID-19 cases shapes individuals’ social distancing behavior during the early months of the ongoing pandemic. We work with de-identified data from Facebook to show that U.S. users whose friends live in areas with worse coronavirus outbreaks reduce their mobility more than otherwise similar users whose friends live in areas with smaller outbreaks. The effects are quantitatively large: a one standard deviation increase in friend-exposure to COVID-19 cases early in the pandemic results in a 1.2 percentage point increase in the probability that an individual stays home on a given day. As the pandemic progresses, changes in friend-exposure drive changes in social distancing behavior. Given the evolving nature and geography of the pandemic—and hence friend-exposure — these results rule out many alternative explanations for the observed relationships. We also analyze data on public posts and membership in groups advocating to “reopen” the economy to show that our findings can be explained by friend-exposure raising awareness about the risks of the disease and inducing individuals to participate in mitigating public health behavior.
    Keywords: social networks, peer effects, Covid-19, social distancing
    JEL: I00 D83 D85 H00
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Michael McMahon (OECD); Sara Calligaris (OECD); Eleanor Doyle (Cork University Business School); Stephen Kinsella (University of Limerick)
    Abstract: This report assesses the impact of digitalisation on competition by examining the evolution of mark-ups and multifactor productivity (MFP) across firms of different sizes. It finds that size is positively related to mark-ups and that this relationship has strengthened over time. This trend has been accompanied by an increase in the relative productivity advantage of larger firms and both changes are more pronounced in digital-intensive sectors, suggesting that digitalisation may be an underlying driver. Policy makers may need to consider appropriate responses if digital technologies affect larger and smaller firms in a heterogeneous manner.
    Keywords: Digitalisation, Intangible Assets, Mark-ups, Market Power, Multifactor Productivity, Scale
    JEL: D2 D24 L1 L2 O33
    Date: 2021–01–18
  8. By: Jorge Nogueira de Paiva Britto (Universidade Federal Fluminense); Leonardo Costa Ribeiro (Cedeplar/UFMG); Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque (Cedeplar/UFMG)
    Abstract: This paper revisits the pioneers of innovation systems in the 1980s to evaluate their perception of international forces tensioning national boundaries of those systems. The development of multinational enterprises and consequent changes in their operation beyond national borders is discussed, looking at the formation of a network of international knowledge flows. Those changes are connected to the internationalization of science and consequent formation of another network of international knowledge flows. Both networks, one firm-led and the other university-led, are pushed by the revolutions in information and communication technologies. The combination, overlapping and intertwinement of those two networks of international knowledge flows constitute a new layer in innovation systems - an emergent global innovation system. This new layer rearranges the roles of regional, sectoral and national innovation systems.
    Keywords: innovation systems, international knowledge flows, layers of innovation systems
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2021–01
  9. By: Bottasso, Anna; Conti, Maurizio; Robbiano, Simone; Santagata, Marta
    Abstract: In this study we leverage on the ancient Roman roads network as a source of exogenous variation in order to identify the causal effect of the modern highways network on innovation using Italian NUTS-3 regional data. Our results suggest that a 10 percent increase in the highways stock in a region causes an increase in the number of patents of about 2-3 percent over a five years period. We document that this positive effect on innovation might in part be explained by a reduction in travel costs that foster collaborations between inventors living in different regions. We also find that the innovation enhancing effect of highways declines over time, possibly because of the introduction of ICT, or the increasing congestion over the Italian network. Finally, we find also evidence of important heterogeneous treatment effects associated to region population density and we cannot rule out the existence of negative spillovers across regions, suggesting possible reorganization of innovative activity across space.
    Keywords: transport infrastructure; innovation; regional growth; policy evaluation
    JEL: L91 O33 O47 R11 R41
    Date: 2020–12–15
  10. By: Junges, Fabio Miguel; Klein, Amarolinda Zanela; Gonçalo, Claudio Reis; Sørensen, Carsten
    Abstract: This article explores how the decision-making processes that occur during mobile work differ from those that occur in fixed workplaces. We explored if the levels of intuition and rationality change in decision-making processes and how the use of mobile ICT influence the individual's perception of information quality. A qualitative research approach was applied combining a group and individual interviews, and a non-participant observation of a decision-making process simulation with 115 participants. The levels of intuition and reasoning in decision-making are not different between fixed and mobile groups. However, there is a perception of lower information quality and difficulties to process information in a mobility context. The time pressure caused by the constant connectivity via mobile devices has potentially adverse consequences for decision-making, increasing individuals' exposure to error. As positive consequences, there is greater agility of decision flows related to the use of mobile ICT, especially regarding low complexity decisions.
    Keywords: decision-making; intuition; mobile ICT; mobile work; mobility
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–01–01
  11. By: David Adeabah (University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Charles Andoh (University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of remittances and information and communication technology (ICT) on pension at the country level. Our empirical evidence, based on data from 96 countries, indicate a significant non-linearity between remittances, ICT and pension income coverage. First, we find a convex relation between remittances and pension income coverage, indicating that increases in remittance, initially decreases pension income coverage, but as remittance increases beyond a certain point, so too does pension income coverage. This inflection point, where the effect of remittances turns from negative to positive, is estimated to be around 3.09% of GDP. Second, we document a concave relationship between ICT (i.e. mobile subscription and internet penetration) and pension income coverage. An increase in ICT results in increased pension income coverage. However, when ICT reaches a certain point, any further increase is associated with lower pension income coverage. The estimated optimal point is found to be around 140.14 subscriptions (per 100 people) for mobile phone and 27.93 (per 100 people) for internet penetration, respectively. Other implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Pension income coverage; Remittances; Mobile subscription; Internet penetration; ICT
    Date: 2020–08
  12. By: Kazeem B. Ajide (University of Lagos, Nigeria); Ibrahim D. Raheem (EXCAS, Liège, Belgium); Olorunfemi Y. Alimi (University of Lagos, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of institutional infrastructures in the financial inclusion-growth nexus for a panel of twenty countries in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA).Employing the System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM), the following insightful outcomes are established. First, while there is an unrestricted positive impact of physical access to ATMs and ICT measures of financial inclusion on SSA’s growth but only the former was found significant. Second, the four institutional components via economic, political, institutional and general governances were also found to be growth-spurring. Lastly, countries with low levels of real per capita income are matching up with other countries with high levels of real income per capita. The empirical evidence of some negative net effects and insignificant marginal impacts are indication that imperfections in the financial markets are sometimes employed to the disadvantage of the poor. On the whole, we established positive effects on growth for the most part. The positive effects are evident because the governance indicators compliment financial inclusion in reducing pecuniary constraints hindering credit access and allocation to the poor that deteriorate growth.
    Keywords: Financial Inclusion; Economic Growth; Governance; System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM)
    JEL: G20 I10 O40 P37
    Date: 2020–01
  13. By: Wilson, Kyle; Xiao, Mo; Orazem, Peter F.
    Abstract: In a rapidly growing industry, potential entrants strategically choose which local markets to enter. Facing the threat of additional entrants, a potential entrant may lower its expectation of future profits and delay entry into a local market, or it may accelerate entry due to preemptive motives. Using the evolution of local market structures of broadband Internet service providers from 1999 to 2007, we find that the former effect dominates the latter after allowing for spatial correlation across markets and accounting for endogenenous market structure. On average, it takes two years longer for threatened markets to receive their first broadband entrant. Moreover, this entry delay has long-run negative implications for the divergence of the U.S. broadband infrastructure: one year of entry delay translates into an 11% decrease in average present-day download speeds.
    Date: 2020–10–27
  14. By: Marko Selakovic (S P Jain School of Global Management, Dubai, UAE Author-2-Name: Anna Tarabasz Author-2-Workplace-Name: S P Jain School of Global Management, Dubai, UAE Author-3-Name: Monica Gallant Author-3-Workplace-Name: S P Jain School of Global Management, Dubai, UAE Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This review paper discusses the emergence of scholarly articles related to the typology and classification of fake news and offers solutions for identified gaps, such as unstandardized terminology and unstandardized typology in the field of fake news-related research. Typology of fake news is a critical topic nowadays: recently emerged fake news needs to be categorized and analyzed in a structured manner in order to respond appropriately. Methodology/Technique - Based on the systematic review of literature identified in scientific databases, different typologies of fake news have been identified and a new typology of business-related fake news online has been proposed. New typology of business-related fake news online is based on factors such as level of facticity, intention to deceive and financial motivation. Findings and novelty - Content analysis of 326 articles containing terms related to the typology of fake news and classification of fake news indicates that the term "typology of fake news" is predominantly used in management, marketing and communications research, while the term "classification of fake news" is predominantly used in the information technology research. The content analysis also indicates the recent emergence of the topic of typology and classification of fake news in academic research, revealing that all articles related to these topics have been published on or after 2016. In addition to the contribution by presenting comprehensive typology of business-related fake news online, this paper also provides recommendations for future research and improvements related to the typology of fake news, emphasizing business-related fake news and fake news spread in the digital space. Type of Paper - Review
    Keywords: Fake News; Crisis Communications; Online Communications; Digital Marketing; Management Research; Marketing Research
    JEL: M31 M39
    Date: 2020–12–31
  15. By: Jean-Charles Pillet (HEC Lausanne - Faculté des Hautes Etudes Commerciales (HEC Lausanne)); Kevin Carillo (TBS - Toulouse Business School); Claudio Vitari (AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Federico Pigni (GEM - Grenoble Ecole de Management)
    Abstract: The digital era is characterized by the widespread diffusion of information technologies (IT) offering great degrees of malleability in how their features may be interpreted and used. While there are immediate advantages to leveraging the malleability of IT, this could also prove a source of confusion for lay users who are faced with multiple interpretations of what IT can do. Despite growing evidence of this phenomenon, current research lacks the concepts and tools to adequately capture its impact on IT acceptance, adoption, and use. In this paper, we first deploy the "perceived functional ambiguity" (PFA) construct, describing its dimensionality and relationships with measures. Then, we develop and validate the corresponding multidimensional measurement instrument. Finally, we test the effect of the construct across three studies assessing how users perceive social media (N=419), smartphones (N=411) and smart speakers (N=346). Our results suggest that ambiguity has a double-edged sword effect on users' perception of IT: greater levels of ambiguity are associated with greater utilitarian and hedonic value, but they also entail substantial learning costs. This research contributes to advancing our theoretical understanding of IT use by introducing ambiguity as a factor underpinning contemporary IT use.
    Keywords: ambiguity,user perception,technology acceptance,multidimensional constructs,scale development
    Date: 2020–06–15
  16. By: Akihiro Abe (Iwate Prefectural University)
    Abstract: In recent years, the business conditions of open-air museums in Japan have grown increasingly severe due to decreasing numbers of visitors and budgetary constraints on the local governments that operate them, in addition to the costs of maintenance and management of their vast sites and buildings. For this reason, a movement has been reported nationwide toward increasing numbers of visitors through making these facilities more attractive as tourism resources, by focusing on accessibly and hospitality, as well as strengthening ties to local communities. While enhancement of museum marketing activities can be considered to be one important method for overcoming these challenges faced by open-air museums, discussions have not yet reached the level of marketing as broadly defined, through creation of value based on the distinctive properties of open-air museums. This study describes feasibility studies of two open-air museums in Japan, with the aim of developing digital-marketing methods reflecting the distinguishing features of open-air museums. It was conducted through action research approach intended to learn about problem-solving in the field while researchers take part in field activities. Efforts were made to apply two digital technologies based on the two touchpoints of collecting information before visitors come to the museum and touring the site, reflecting the distinctive properties of open-air museums' vast sites and large numbers of visitors. For the former, we adopted a chatbot in promotional activities to respond to inquiries. For the latter, we developed a tour support application software with consideration for the physical burden on visitors, using wearable devices. While it was unable to integrate both of these systems together in a single system, through implementing each of these we were able to elucidate the effects expected of these as digital marketing tools at actual open-air museums and both technical and operational challenges in utilizing them.
    Keywords: Open-air Museum, Museum Marketing, ICT Service, Action Research
  17. By: María del Mar López Guerrero (Faculty of Science, University of Malaga); Gema López Guerrero (Faculty of Science, University of Malaga); Miguel Hernández López (Faculty of Science, University of Malaga); María Teresa Siles Cordero (Faculty of Science, University of Malaga); José Gonzalez-Rodriguez (University of Lincoln)
    Abstract: Until now, the didactics used in the teaching of experimental chemistry contradicts its objective by continuing with a traditional approach and with passive didactic methods for students. Even, in virtual environments, working in the laboratory practices is basically "following a recipe" where the student does not have the opportunity to ask, make decisions or apply to their daily life. In addition to this, it happens that the "recipes" of the laboratories, in general, are repeated frequently, sometimes semester after semester. The recipes have been tested, being known to give good results, and offer no major difficulties, but the recipes do not present uncertainty for the student.On the other hand, we find the problem of the use of ICT in laboratories, which needs a change of focus. It also requires a change of environment, it is convenient to incorporate measurement processes, analyze data in real time and treat what is observed.It should be remembered that Chemistry is an experimental science, therefore, laboratory works are essential and provide an enrichment for procedures and research that cannot be replaced by virtual laboratories.For all these reasons, this work focuses on the usefulness of the laboratory as a space with a problem-solving approach, which is, contextualizing problems and fulfilling a series of purposes. According to Zambrano (2007), these purposes are: ability to internalize general and specific knowledge (to know), to acquire technical and procedural skills (to know how), to develop attitudes (to know how to be) and social skills (to know how to live together).The intention of this article is to show that, including chemistry laboratories self-managed by the students themselves, generates one of the fundamental competences in our changing society, such as self-learning (learning to learn).To conclude the change of focus in the laboratories allows the student to be empowered since students are responsible for his own learning, so that it contributes to their self-learning; teamwork involving assertive communication. Both oral and written communication, students learned to argue and support his ideas. Therefore, it was revealed that is a training for students and are achieving better student performance.
    Keywords: PBL, Chemistry, Laboratory practices, Engineering Degree
    JEL: I23 I21 I29
  18. By: Roxana Ologeanu-Taddei (UM - Université de Montpellier); Claudio Vitari (AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: This article aims to contribute to better understand what trust in information technology (IT) means. Past Management Information Systems (MIS) research has conceptualized trust in IT in a relatively homogeneous way as trust in IT-enabled and IT-mediated products and phenomena, neglecting trust in IT itself, and only marginally differentiate among the different sources of trust. All this make difficult to generalize findings and develop a well structured scientific corpus of knowledge about trust in IT. We re-conceptualize trust in IT and propose an integrative framework of Trust in IT Itself (TITI) to overcome the previous shortcomings. The framework is built on two axes. The first axis refers to the sources of the expectations about the IT, opposing the calculative-based trust and the not calculative-based ones. The second axis is about the attributes of the IT valued by the trustor and includes the trust in functionality of the IT and the trust in the reliability of the IT. The combination of the two axes create the conceptual space for a new definition of trust in IT itself. An empirical application of the framework is in progress. First data analysis show evidences in line with the new theoretical framework. Further research is planned to consolidate the validity of the framework.
    Keywords: Trust in IT,cognitive attributes,calculative attributes,functionality,reliability
    Date: 2020–06–15
  19. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of a growth enhancement support scheme (GESS) on youth development in informal farm entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the GESS on rural youths’ adoption of new technologies needed to sustainably increase food security in Nigeria. Design/ methodology/ approach – This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 800 rural youths were sampled across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Findings – The result from the use of a bivariate probit model indicate that the GESS has a significant impact on rural youths’ innovations in farming. Practical implication – This suggests that information and communication technology (ICT) could provide new opportunities for making farming more interesting and enterprising for rural young people. Social implication – It implies that while old male and female farmers are less likely to adopt the new farming technologies needed to achieve Nigeria’s agricultural transformation agenda (ATA), a younger generation can help introduce new technologies, whilst also learning from traditional methods. Originality/ value – This research adds to the literature on informal farm entrepreneurship and rural communities’ debate in developing countries. It concludes that engaging youths in GESS should form the foundation of the ATA in Nigeria, which, in turn, would offer adequate combination of new and traditional solutions to address the challenges of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Youth Development Initiative, Informal Farm Entrepreneurship, Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS), Rural Communities in Nigeria
    Date: 2020–01
  20. By: Nicola Pierri; Yannick Timmer
    Abstract: We study the economic effects of information technology (IT) adoption during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data on IT adoption covering almost three million establishments in the US, we find that technology adoption can partly shield the economy from the impact of the pandemic. In areas where firms adopted more IT the unemployment rate rose less in response to social distancing. Our estimates imply that if the pandemic had hit the world 5 years ago, the resulting unemployment rate would have been 2 percentage points higher during April and May 2020 (16% vs. 14%), due to the lower availability of IT. Local IT adop-tion mitigates the labor market consequences of the pandemic for all individuals, regardless of gender and race, except those with the lowest level of educational attainment.
    Keywords: Unemployment rate;Unemployment;COVID-19 ;Labor;Technology;WP,IT adoption
    Date: 2020–09–25

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