nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2020‒09‒14
nine papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Automation, globalisation and relative wages: An empirical analysis of winners and losers By Gravina, Antonio Francesco; Foster-McGregor, Neil
  2. Impact of information technology on strategic management in the banking sector of Iraq By Adetayo Adeniran; Hamid Jadah; Noor Mohammed
  3. Data vs collateral By Leonardo Gambacorta; Yiping Huang; Zhenhua Li; Han Qiu; Shu Chen
  4. Network goods, price discrimination, and two-sided platforms By BELLEFLAMME, Paul,; PEITZ, Martin,
  5. Cliometrics and the Evolution of Human Capital By Claude Diebolt; Roger Fouquet; Ralph Hippe
  7. The rise (and fall) of science parks By KICHKO Sergey,; LIANG Wen-Jung,; MAI Chao-Cheng,; THISSE Jacques-François,
  8. Task Specialization and Cognitive Skills: Evidence from PIAAC and IALS By Martínez Matute, Marta; Villanueva, Ernesto
  9. Positionality-Weighted Aggregation Methods on Cumulative Voting By Takeshi Kato; Yasuhiro Asa; Misa Owa

  1. By: Gravina, Antonio Francesco (Department of Law, University of Palermo, Italy and Department of Economics, University of Messina, Italy); Foster-McGregor, Neil (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the effects of advances in robotics, tangible and intangible technologies, and trade openness and global value chain participation on relative wages, relying upon the skill-biased technical change and polarisation of the labour force frameworks. The empirical analysis is carried out using a panel dataset comprising 18 mostly advanced European economies and 6 industries, with annual observations spanning the period 2008-2017. Our findings suggest that intangible technologies - especially software & databases - significantly increase the wage premium for high relative to lower-skilled labour. Additionally, the tangible component of ICT primarily benefits lower-skilled workers, whereas R&D and trade openness produce polarising effects. The results are robust to the inclusion of sector-specific labour market regulations variables in the models.
    Keywords: Robots, Intangibles, Automation, ICT, Globalisation, Wage Differentials
    JEL: C01 F16 F63 J31 O11 O33 O43
    Date: 2020–09–03
  2. By: Adetayo Adeniran (FUTA - Federal University of Technology of Akure); Hamid Jadah (University of Kerbala - Partenaires INRAE); Noor Mohammed (Imam AL- Kadhum College)
    Abstract: The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of information technology on strategic management in the banking sector. The specific objectives are to identify the applications of information technology in banking sector; to examine the association between education level and customer's usage of IT applications in the banking sector; and to examine the relationship between information technology and organization's strategy. The methodology of the study is supported by interview of bank customers and interview of industry experts based on purposive sampling technique. The findings revealed that Electronic cards, ATMs, online banking, electronic payment, and mobile banking were the major application of IT in Iraq banking sector. There is an association between education level of bank customers and their usage of IT applications regarding banking transactions in Iraq. There is a relationship between information technology and organization's strategy which has resulted in value creation and competitive advantage of banks. It was recommended that for better performance of IT on banking, the management of banking sector should adopt better policies that will encourage users to adopt IT usage in banks. The main contribution of this study is that information technology enhances value creation and competitive advantage in Iraq banks.
    Keywords: information technology,banking sector,strategic management
    Date: 2020–06–30
  3. By: Leonardo Gambacorta; Yiping Huang; Zhenhua Li; Han Qiu; Shu Chen
    Abstract: The use of massive amounts of data by large technology firms (big techs) to assess firms’ creditworthiness could reduce the need for collateral in solving asymmetric information problems in credit markets. Using a unique dataset of more than 2 million Chinese firms that received credit from both an important big tech firm (Ant Group) and traditional commercial banks, this paper investigates how different forms of credit correlate with local economic activity, house prices and firm characteristics. We find that big tech credit does not correlate with local business conditions and house prices when controlling for demand factors, but reacts strongly to changes in firm characteristics, such as transaction volumes and network scores used to calculate firm credit ratings. By contrast, both secured and unsecured bank credit react significantly to local house prices, which incorporate useful information on the environment in which clients operate and on their creditworthiness. This evidence implies that a greater use of big tech credit – granted on the basis of machine learning and big data – could reduce the importance of collateral in credit markets and potentially weaken the financial accelerator mechanism.
    Keywords: big tech, big data, collateral, banks, asymmetric information, credit markets
    JEL: D22 G31 R30
    Date: 2020–09
  4. By: BELLEFLAMME, Paul, (CORE, Université catholique de Louvain); PEITZ, Martin, (Universität Mannheim)
    Abstract: A monopolist sells a network good to a set of heterogeneous users who all care about total participation. We show that the provider of the network good effectively becomes a two-sided platform if it can condition prices on some user characteristics. This still holds true if the network operator cannot obsoerve consumer characteristics but induces user self-selection when it offers screening contracts. In our setting, all incentive constraints are slack The use of freemium strategies emerges as a special case of versioning. Here, a base version is offered at zero price and a premium version at a positive price. Overall, the paper illustrates the close link between price discrimination in the presence of a network good and pricing by a two-sided platform.
    Keywords: network goods, two-sided markets, platform pricing, group pricing, menu pricing
    JEL: D62 L12 L82 L86
    Date: 2020–07–01
  5. By: Claude Diebolt (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Roger Fouquet (Monsanto Company); Ralph Hippe (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: Human capital has been seen to be a key factor for current and future economic growth. In a broader sense, it appears that we are moving towards a knowledge economy driven by human capital, technological progress and digitalization. However, although this evolution may be a new trend, similar developments have occurred in history before. In line with this reasoning, the scholarly feld of cliometrics has received ever more attention during the last years. In consequence, this paper presents the foundations of cliometrics, and provides insights into the basic conceptual framework and evolution of human capital during the last centuries.
    Keywords: Human Capital,Cliometrics,ICT,Economic Development,Economic Development JEL codes: I21,N90,O18
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Svetlana Radtchenko-Draillard (UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7)
    Abstract: The aim of our study is to analyze the prospects for optimizing the modelling of the human factor in the economy and society in the era of digitization. By defining the main axes of human practices in the economy and society, our research highlights the need for evaluation, mediation, negotiation, the evolution of the modelling of their activity. Our empirical research complement also the analysis of the impact of the human factor in this modelling of economic and societal practices.
    Keywords: digitization,human factor,economy,modern society,information and communication technologies (ICT),management,mediation,negotiation,creativity and talent
    Date: 2020–01–24
  7. By: KICHKO Sergey, (HSE University); LIANG Wen-Jung, (National Dong Hwa University); MAI Chao-Cheng, (Academia Sinica and Tamkang University); THISSE Jacques-François, (CORE, UCLouvain; HSE University and CEPR)
    Abstract: Science parks play a growing role in knowledge-based economies by accommodating high-tech firms and providing an environment that fosters location-dependent knowledge spillovers and promote R&D investments by firms. Yet, not much is known about the economic conditions under which such entities may form in equilibrium without government interventions. This paper develops a spatial equilibrium model with a competitive final sector and a monopolistically competitive intermediate sector, which allows us to determine necessary and sufficient conditions for a science park to emerge as an equilibrium outcome. We show that strongly localized knowledge spillovers, skilled labor abundance, and low commuting costs are key drivers for a science park to form. Not only is the productivity of the final sector higher when intermediate firms cluster, but a science park hosts more intermediate firms, more researchers and more production workers, and yields greater worker welfare, compared to a counterfactual flat city. With continual improvements in infrastructure and communication technology that lowers coordination costs, science parks will eventually be fragmented.
    Keywords: science park, knowledge spillovers, intermadiate firm clustering, land use, worker commuting, R&D
    JEL: D51 L22 O33 R13
    Date: 2020–02–11
  8. By: Martínez Matute, Marta (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid); Villanueva, Ernesto (Bank of Spain)
    Abstract: We study how the tasks conducted on the job relate to measures of cognitive skills using data from 18 countries participating in the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) and from 13 countries that also participate in the International Adult Literacy Study (IALS). We document two main findings. Firstly, individual- fixed effect models suggest that low-educated workers in jobs involving a particular set of basic tasks -say, in numeric rather than reading or ICT tasks- obtain 10% of one standard deviation higher scores in the domain of the PIAAC assessment most related to those tasks than in the rest -say, numeracy relative to literacy or problem-solving scores. The estimates are weaker for workers with a high school or college degree, those with more than 10 years of experience or who are males. Secondly, a synthetic cohort analysis using repeated literacy assessments in IALS and PIAAC indicates that, among the low-educated, long-run increases in the reading task component of jobs correlate positively with increases in cohort-level literacy scores. An interpretation of our findings is that tasks conducted on the job help in building human capital. Under that interpretation, our back-of-the envelope estimates suggest that the contribution of one year of on-the-job learning to skill formation is between a half and a fourth of an extra year of compulsory schooling.
    Keywords: human capital, tasks, education, working experience, cognitive skills
    JEL: J24 J31 I20
    Date: 2020–07
  9. By: Takeshi Kato; Yasuhiro Asa; Misa Owa
    Abstract: The issue in solving social problems is how to respect minority opinions, which are often ignored in general majority rules. To build consensus on pluralistic values and make social choices in consideration of minority opinions, we propose aggregation methods that give weighting to the minority's positionality on cardinal cumulative voting. Based on quadratic and linear voting, we formulated three weighted aggregation methods that differ in the ratio of votes to cumulative points and the weighting of the minority to all members, and calculated the frequency distributions of the aggregation results, assuming that the distributions of votes follow normal distributions. From these calculation results, we found that minority opinions are likely to be reflected as weighting increases proportionally in two of the above three methods. This means that Sen and Gotoh's idea of considering the social position of unfortunate people on ordinal ranking, that welfare economics considers under an axiomatic approach, was shown by weighting the minority's positionality on cardinal voting. In addition, we can know the contents such as the number and positionality of the minority from the analysis of the aggregation results. It will be useful for promoting mutual understanding between the majority and minority by visualizing the contents of the proposed aggregation methods interactively in the consensus-building process. With the further development of information technology, the consensus building on cardinal choices based on big data will be necessary. We would like to use the proposed aggregation methods for making social choices for pluralistic values such as social, environmental, and economic.
    Date: 2020–08

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