nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2020‒08‒31
six papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Remittances, ICT and Pension Income Coverage: The International Evidence By David Adeabah; Simplice A. Asongu; Charles Andoh
  2. The online job market trace in Latin America and the Caribbean By Hilbert, Martin R.; Lu, Kangbo
  3. A Public Option for the Core By Yotam Harchol; Dirk Bergemann; Nick Feamster; Eric Friedman; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Aurojit Panda; Sylvia Ratnasamy; Michael Schapira; Scott Shenker
  4. The New Digital Platforms: Merger Control in Pakistan By Shahzada Aamir Mushtaq; Wang Yuhui
  5. Does Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS) Contribute to Youth Development in Informal Farm Entrepreneurship? Evidence from Rural Communities in Nigeria By Joseph I. Uduji; Elda N. Okolo-Obasi; Simplice A. Asongu
  6. Measuring the economic value of data and cross-border data flows: A business perspective By David Nguyen; Marta Paczos

  1. By: David Adeabah (University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Charles Andoh (University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of remittances and information and communication technology (ICT) on pension at the country level. Our empirical evidence, based on data from 96 countries, indicate a significant non-linearity between remittances, ICT and pension income coverage. First, we find a convex relation between remittances and pension income coverage, indicating that increases in remittance, initially decreases pension income coverage, but as remittance increases beyond a certain point, so too does pension income coverage. This inflection point, where the effect of remittances turns from negative to positive, is estimated to be around 3.09% of GDP. Second, we document a concave relationship between ICT (i.e. mobile subscription and internet penetration) and pension income coverage. An increase in ICT results in increased pension income coverage. However, when ICT reaches a certain point, any further increase is associated with lower pension income coverage. The estimated optimal point is found to be around 140.14 subscriptions (per 100 people) for mobile phone and 27.93 (per 100 people) for internet penetration, respectively. Other implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Pension income coverage; Remittances; Mobile subscription; Internet penetration; ICT
    Date: 2020–08
  2. By: Hilbert, Martin R.; Lu, Kangbo
    Abstract: Jobs intermediated by online platforms have become a central pillar of labour markets in Latin America and the Caribbean. Public online platforms inevitably leave digital trace data that can be used as a source of information regarding online labour supply and demand. This report explores the opportunities and challenges of the systematic use of these publicly available data. The objective is to give an overview of the volume and nature of these data, and to share the lessons learned in order to develop a research agenda that enables alternative labour market information tools to be created, based on these new sources. To provide an initial analysis of the type of information that can be drawn from this data source, this report presents the main findings from data collected from six major international labour market platforms and two global freelancing sites in late 2019 and early 2020. These platforms are Acciontrabajo (Profdir), CompuTrabajo, Jobisjob, CaribbeanJobsOnline, CaribbeanJobs, and the two global freelancing sites are Freelancer and Upwork, covering 33 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.
    Date: 2020–08–07
  3. By: Yotam Harchol (EPFL); Dirk Bergemann (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Nick Feamster (University of Chicago); Eric Friedman (ICSI and UC Berkeley); Arvind Krishnamurthy (University of Washington); Aurojit Panda (New York University); Sylvia Ratnasamy (UC Berkeley); Michael Schapira (Hebrew University of Jerusalem); Scott Shenker (UC Berkeley)
    Abstract: This paper is focused not on the Internet architecture – as defined by layering, the narrow waist of IP, and other core design principles – but on the Internet infrastructure, as embodied in the technologies and organizations that provide Internet service. In this paper we discuss both the challenges and the opportunities that make this an auspicious time to revisit how we might best structure the Internet's infrastructure. Currently, the tasks of transit-between-domains and last-mile-delivery are jointly handled by a set of ISPs who interconnect through BGP. In this paper we propose cleanly separating these two tasks. For transit, we propose the creation of a "public option" for the Internet's core backbone. This public option core, which complements rather than replaces the backbones used by large-scale ISPs, would (i) run an open market for backbone bandwidth so it could leverage links offered by third-parties, and (ii) structure its terms-of-service to enforce network neutrality so as to encourage competition and reduce the advantage of large incumbents.
    Keywords: Internet transit, Network neutrality, Internet infrastructure
    Date: 2020–08
  4. By: Shahzada Aamir Mushtaq; Wang Yuhui
    Abstract: The Pakistan competition policy, as in many other countries, was originally designed to regulate business conduct in traditional markets and for tangible goods and services. However, the development and proliferation of the internet has led to the emergence of digital companies which have disrupted many sectors of the economy. These platforms provide digital infrastructure for a range of services including search engines, marketplaces, and social networking sites. The digital economy poses a myriad of challenges for competition authorities worldwide, especially with regard to digital mergers and acquisitions (M&As). While some jurisdictions such as the European Union and the United States have taken significant strides in regulating technological M&As, there is an increasing need for developing countries such as Pakistan to rethink their competition policy tools. This paper investigates whether merger reviews in the Pakistan digital market are informed by the same explanatory variables as in the traditional market, by performing an empirical comparative analysis of the Competition Commission of Pakistan's (CCP's) M&A decisions between 2014 and 2019. The findings indicate the CCP applies the same decision factors in reviewing both traditional and digital M&As. As such, this paper establishes a basis for igniting the policy and economic debate of regulating the digital platform industry in Pakistan.
    Date: 2020–06
  5. By: Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the impact of a growth enhancement support scheme (GESS) on youth development in informal farm entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Its special focus is to investigate the impact of the GESS on rural youths’ adoption of new technologies needed to sustainably increase food security in Nigeria. Design/ methodology/ approach – This paper adopts a survey research technique, aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of the population, as it is essentially cross-sectional, describing and interpreting the current situation. A total of 800 rural youths were sampled across the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Findings – The result from the use of a bivariate probit model indicate that the GESS has a significant impact on rural youths’ innovations in farming. Practical implication – This suggests that information and communication technology (ICT) could provide new opportunities for making farming more interesting and enterprising for rural young people. Social implication – It implies that while old male and female farmers are less likely to adopt the new farming technologies needed to achieve Nigeria’s agricultural transformation agenda (ATA), a younger generation can help introduce new technologies, whilst also learning from traditional methods. Originality/ value – This research adds to the literature on informal farm entrepreneurship and rural communities’ debate in developing countries. It concludes that engaging youths in GESS should form the foundation of the ATA in Nigeria, which, in turn, would offer adequate combination of new and traditional solutions to address the challenges of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Youth Development Initiative, Informal Farm Entrepreneurship, Growth Enhancement Support Scheme (GESS), Rural Communities in Nigeria
    Date: 2020–01
  6. By: David Nguyen (Economic Statistics Centre of Excellence); Marta Paczos (Economic Statistics Centre of Excellence)
    Abstract: The amount and variety of data that companies collect, aggregate and analyse has increased dramatically in recent years. This paper investigates how the economic value of data can be conceptualised and measured from a business perspective. It discusses data monetisation as a strategy for developing new business models or enhancing traditional ones, and proposes a new taxonomy for data that focuses on measuring its business value. The paper also discusses how different data characteristics and types affect economic value, before examining the role of cross-border data flows as a key enabler of our global economy. As part of this discussion, the concept of a "global data value chain" is presented, based on the idea that digitalisation enables the physical detachment of data collection, analysis, storage and monetisation. The paper concludes with a summary and discussion of the most promising avenues for measuring the economic value of data.
    Keywords: digital, science and technology
    Date: 2020–08–26

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