nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2020‒06‒22
fourteen papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Energy and Electricity Consumption of the ICT-sector in Finland By Hiekkanen, Kari; Seppälä, Timo; Ylhäinen, Ilkka
  2. Is Technological Change Really Skills-Biased? Firm-level Evidence of the Complementarities between ICT and Workers’ Education By Filippo Pusterla; Thomas Bolli
  3. An Exploratory Study of the Causality between Internet Use, Innovation, and Economic Growth in Tunisia: An indispensable Case Analysis By Bakari, Sayef; Tiba, Sofien; Mabrouki, Mohamed
  4. Winners and Losers from COVID-19 : Global Evidence from Google Search By Abay,Kibrom A.; Hirfrfot,Kibrom Tafere; Woldemichael,Andinet
  5. Can IT Service Enhance the Productivity of Japanese Firms? - Cloud Computing, CIO, and Japanese Firms' Performance - (Japanese) By KIM YoungGak; INUI Tomohiko
  6. The Impact of Internet on Economic Growth in North Africa: New empirical and policy analysis By Bakari, Sayef; Tiba, Sofien
  7. ICT appropriation, working conditions and hospital performance in the Cameroonian context By Chevalier de Dieu Kutche Tamghe; Denis Ngae; Innocent Essomme
  8. The Race between Technological Progress and Female Advancement: Changes in Gender and Skill Premia in OECD Countries By Hiroya Taniguchi; Ken Yamada
  9. Remote-learning, Time-Use, and Mental Health of Ecuadorian High-School Studentsduring the COVID-19 Quarantine By Asanov,Igor; Flores,Francisco; Mckenzie,David J.; Mensmann,Mona; Schulte,Mathis
  10. Legal Regulations of E-commerce in China: Focusing on the Anti-Monopoly Law, the Anti-Unfair Competition Law and the E-Commerce Law (Japanese) By KAWASHIMA Fujio
  11. Vietnamese Consumer Attitudes towards Smartphone Advertising By Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Vuong, Bui Nhat
  12. A model of Factors Influencing Behavioral Intention to Use Internet Banking and the Moderating Role of Anxiety: Evidence from Vietnam By Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Vuong, Bui Nhat
  13. What does the proof-of-concept (POC) really prove? A historical perspective and a cross-domain analytical study By Caroline Jobin; Pascal Le Masson; Sophie Hooge
  14. Covid-19, occupational social distancing and remote working potential in Ireland By Crowley, Frank; Doran, Justin

  1. By: Hiekkanen, Kari; Seppälä, Timo; Ylhäinen, Ilkka
    Abstract: Abstract The role of the digital technologies are becoming increasingly important in our day-to-day life. Digital technologies have become part of our social life as well as business operations across different industrial and public sectors. Because of digitalization the internet protocol and data traffic have been on the rise for several years. A few studies and estimates have been presented about the increasing future use of energy and electricity. Occasionally consumer behaviors have been claimed to be behind of these increases in electricity use. This report makes an effort to understand the energy and electricity consumption of the Finnish Information sector (ICT-sector) from 2011 until 2017. Additionally, we compare the Finnish electricity use to other European countries with similar data available. The findings of this study are partly inconsistent with those previously presented in terms of future energy and electricity use. Our report also shows that energy efficiencies of the information sector have not been retained while the internet protocol and data traffic have been increasing in both fixed and mobile networks.
    Keywords: Information economy sector, ICT, IP traffic, Data use, Energy consumption, Electricity consumption
    JEL: L8 L82 L86 L94
    Date: 2020–06–08
  2. By: Filippo Pusterla (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Thomas Bolli (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper extends and refnes the concept of ICT-driven skills-biased technological change by disentangling the effects of information technologies (IT) and communication technologies (CT). Guided by the theory that IT and CT differently affect firms' production processes, we investigate the complementarities between these two distinct technologies and workers' levels of education in affecting firms' productivity. Exploiting within-firm variation between 2005-2017, we find that the use of IT-measured as use of business management tools - is particularly beneficial for workers with a tertiary vocational education. In contrast, CT - measured as workers' use of the intranet - is especially complementary to workers with a tertiary academic education. While consistent with the ICT-driven skills-biased technological change hypothesis, our results offer evidence on the necessity for differentiating between the effects of IT and CT on firm productivity when differently educated workers use these technologies.
    Keywords: skills-biased technological change, information technologies, communication technologies
    JEL: J24 O33
    Date: 2019–12
  3. By: Bakari, Sayef; Tiba, Sofien; Mabrouki, Mohamed
    Abstract: In line with the exogenous and endogenous theory coupled with the seminal Schumpeterian contribution, we attempt to investigate the impact of the use of internet and innovation on economic growth in the case of the Tunisian economy. For this purpose, we employ the ARDL bounds testing methodology over the period 1985-2018. In the short-run, our empirical facts outline the absence of a significant effect of innovation on economic growth. Also, our empirical findings reported that the internet stimulates economic growth. However, in the long-run, our empirical findings pointed out the presence of the negative impact of the innovation and the use of internet on economic growth. Moreover, our results show a significant positive impact of the internet and economic growth on innovation in the long-run. Finally, our results show a negative impact of economic growth on the use of the internet. However, the results display a significant positive impact of innovation on the use of the internet. From these perspectives, the Tunisian authorities should take seriously the innovation and the potential of the use of the internet which can help the economy to be modernized, diversified, and robust to create new jobs and to find new markets and new strategic partners, and new opportunities.
    Keywords: Innovation; Use of the Internet; Economic Growth; ARDL Bounds testing.
    JEL: O2 O31 O32 O33 O34 O38 O47 O55
    Date: 2020–03
  4. By: Abay,Kibrom A.; Hirfrfot,Kibrom Tafere; Woldemichael,Andinet
    Abstract: As COVID-19 continues to wreak havoc across the world, researchers are attempting to quantify the economic fallout from the pandemic as it continues to unfold. Estimating the economic impacts of a prevailing pandemic is fraught with uncertainties about the epidemiology of the disease and the breadth of disruption of economic activities. This paper employs historical and near real-time Google search data to estimate the immediate impacts of COVID-19 on demand for selected services across 182 countries. The analysis exploits the temporal and spatial variations in the spread of the virus and finds that demand for services that require face-to-face interaction, such as hotels, restaurants and retail trade, has substantially contracted. In contrast, demand for services that can be performed remotely or provide solutions to the challenges of reduced personal interactions, such as information and communications technology (ICT), and deliveries, has increased significantly. In a span of three months, the pandemic has resulted in a 63 percent reduction in demand for hotels, while increasing demand for ICT by a comparable rate. The impacts appear to be driven by supply contractions, due to social distancing and lockdown measures, and demand shocks as consumers shelter in place, with the latter dominating for most services. The magnitude of the changes in demand varies considerably with government responses to the pandemic.
    Keywords: Pulp&Paper Industry,Food&Beverage Industry,Plastics&Rubber Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Common Carriers Industry,Textiles, Apparel&Leather Industry,Transport Services,International Trade and Trade Rules,Health Care Services Industry,ICT Economics
    Date: 2020–06–02
  5. By: KIM YoungGak; INUI Tomohiko
    Abstract: In recent years, IT use by Japanese firms has shifted from accumulating IT assets on their own to purchasing IT services, such as cloud computing. In this paper, we focus on the impacts of the introduction of cloud computing and a Chief Information Officer (CIO) on firm performance. For this study, we match the microdata of the "ICT Workplace survey" and the "Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities" by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI), and analyze the effects of cloud computing and the presence of a CIO on the performance of firms, such as productivity, sales, number of employees, etc. The introduction of cloud computing increases firms' sales and productivity, and accelerates their FDI, even after controlling for the fixed effects of firms. Sales increase in the main business, but sales in side businesses increase even further. The number of patents held increases, however R&D expenditure does not increase accordingly. This paper also examines the effect of introducing a CIO, which is one of the personnel systems that Japanese firms have been slow to introduce. Although the introduction of CIOs increases sales, there is no significant impact on productivity because it also increases input volumes. Firms that have introduced CIOs have more sales in their main industries resulting in greater business concentration to the main business. Similarly to the benefits of cloud computing, CIO adoption does increase patent holdings, although it does not increase R&D spending. The results in this research suggest that the adoption of cloud computing services and the CIO position both contribute to higher productivity, faster sales growth, and more efficient innovation of firms.
    Date: 2020–04
  6. By: Bakari, Sayef; Tiba, Sofien
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to treat the impact of the internet on growth for a sample in the case 4 economies of the North Africa over the period 1995-2017 using various techniques such as the ARDL bounds testing approach, Panel ARDL Model, OLS Fixed Effect, OLS Random Effect, FMOLS, 2 SLS, RLS, GLM, and GMM. Indeed, for the time series results, the ARDL highlights reported the presence of a negative impact of the internet on economic growth in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. Also, the main results of the Panel data models confirm the fact that the internet exerts a significant negative impact on growth for North Africa as a whole. These economies are invited to orient the use of the internet towards productive ways to reap the benefits of the spread of the internet and proactively enhance the prosperity in this region as a whole.
    Keywords: Internet use, economic growth, North Africa.
    JEL: O1 O11 O14 O20 O30 O38 O40 O47 O55
    Date: 2020–02
  7. By: Chevalier de Dieu Kutche Tamghe (IPD - Institut Panafricain Pour le Développement); Denis Ngae (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Innocent Essomme (University of Dschang)
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to show the influence of working conditions in the relationship between the appropriation of ICT and hospital performance in Cameroon. To achieve this goal, a field survey was conducted with a valid random sample of 479 workers from first and second category public hospitals in Cameroon. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and econometric analyzes. The results of inferential analyzes carried out by means of multiple linear regression show that working conditions in hospitals in Cameroon play a mediating role in the relationship between each of the two dimensions of ICT appropriation, which are perceived utility, perceived ease of use and hospital performance. These results, discussed from the perspective of Berbain and Minvielle (2001), Picard (2007), Venkatraman and Camillus (1984) and theorists of the school of human relations such as Emery and Trist (1968), Herzberg (1959) and Mayo (1949), suggest to managers of hospital structures to: ensure the adequacy between work and the physical and psychological capacities of human resources, take care of the quality of their relations with the hierarchy, ensure their comfort and physical security and finally, provide them with stimulating remuneration in order to optimize hospital performance.
    Keywords: Hospital performance,Working conditions,Perceived usability,ICT appropriation,Perceived usefulness
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Hiroya Taniguchi; Ken Yamada
    Abstract: In recent decades, the male-female wage gap has fallen, while the skilled-unskilled wage gap has risen in advanced countries. The rate of decline in the gender wage gap has tended to be greater for unskilled than skilled workers, while the rate of increase in the skill wage gap has tended to be greater for male than female workers. To account for these trends, we develop an aggregate production function extended to allow for gender-specific capital-skill complementarity, and estimate it using shift-hare instruments and cross-country panel data from OECD countries. We confirm that information and communication technology (ICT) equipment is not only more complementary to skilled than unskilled workers but also more complementary to female than male workers. Our results show that changes in gender and skill premia are the outcome of the race between progress in ICT and advances in female educational attainment and employment.
    Date: 2020–05
  9. By: Asanov,Igor; Flores,Francisco; Mckenzie,David J.; Mensmann,Mona; Schulte,Mathis
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has closed schools around the world, forcing school systems and students to quickly attempt remote learning. A rapid response phone survey of over 1,500 high school students aged 14 to 18 in Ecuador was conducted to learn how students spend their time during the period of quarantine, examine their access to remote learning, and measure their mental health status. The data show that 59 percent of students have both an internet connection at home and a computer or tablet, 74 percent are engaging in some online or telelearning, and 86 percent have done some schoolwork on the last weekday. Detailed time-use data show most students have established similar daily routines around education, although gender and wealth differences emerge in time spent working and on household tasks. Closure of schools and social isolation are the two main problems students say they face, and while the majority are mostly happy, 16 percent have mental health scores that indicate depression.
    Keywords: Health Care Services Industry,Educational Sciences,Mental Health,Gender and Development,Educational Institutions&Facilities,Effective Schools and Teachers
    Date: 2020–05–19
  10. By: KAWASHIMA Fujio
    Abstract: In China, e-commerce transactions, represented by those done through Alibaba-run e-commerce shopping malls such as Taobao and T-mall, have been developing rapidly. In addition, taking advantage of the proliferation of smart phone payment services which have developed faster than in Japan, a variety of new information technology-related businesses have been introduced into markets, such as ride sharing, bike sharing, internet food delivery and so on. At present, most of such new entrants have been integrated, through capital and other relationships, into either one of Alibaba group, which runs Taobao, T-mall ad Alipay, or Tencent Group, which runs Wechat and Wechat Pay, which together constitute the two largest IT conglomerates. By demonstrating the contrast between the current trends in Japan, the United States and the European Union towards more and more stringent antimonopoly/competition laws regulation of IT giants such as Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon, this discussion paper introduces legal regulations, especially regulations through China's Anti-Monopoly Law, Anti-Unfair Competition Law and E-Commerce Law, of Chinese IT giants and their characteristics and limitations. This paper also examines what lessons we can learn for corresponding regulations in other jurisdictions and development of international rules.
    Date: 2020–04
  11. By: Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Vuong, Bui Nhat
    Abstract: This research examines four specific objectives: (1) identifying factors that affect Vietnamese consumer attitudes towards smartphone advertising, (2) measuring the level of impact of the factors, (3) testing the difference of attitudes among groups of consumers with different characteristics in terms of gender, age, income, and academic level, and (4) proposing some managerial implications to have better Vietnamese consumer attitudes towards smartphone advertising. The study uses the online survey form via e-mail and Facebook in a convenience sampling method; the subjects surveyed are between the ages of 18 and 35, and all are in urban areas in Vietnam, and are using smartphones and accessing the internet and other phone applications. A sample of 490 respondents were valid and used for processing. The study employs a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze exploratory factors and linear multiple regression. The results reveal that there are five main factors affecting Vietnamese consumer attitudes towards smartphone advertising positively, arranged by reduced importance: entertainment, informativeness, credibility, non-irritation, permission and control. From that, the study offers some managerial suggestions for smartphone advertisers to improve their strategies and tatics to enhance their customer service, so that the smartphone advertising can attract people and help Vietnamese consumer in their buying behavior.
    Date: 2020–05–19
  12. By: Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Vuong, Bui Nhat
    Abstract: Internet banking is becoming a new focus as the number of internet users and its benefits are increasing worldwide and its benefits. However, the degree of intent to use internet banking is still a question of interest. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting attitude and behavioral intention to use internet banking in Viet Nam, as well as the moderating role of anxiety, will be examined. Totally, 584 questionnaires were collected for the final analysis. The results from the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using the SmartPLS 3.0 program showed that facilitating condition, performance expectancy, social influence, perceived credibility, and effort expectancy had a positive impact on attitude and behavioral intention to use internet banking. Besides, anxiety decreased behavioral intention and it also dampened the positive relationship between attitude and behavioral intention. The findings of this study could help banks to improve their service to attract more users. Besides, the use of internet banking could reduce the frequency to a bank that indirectly reduces costs.
    Date: 2020–05–29
  13. By: Caroline Jobin (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Sophie Hooge (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - PSL - PSL Research University - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: Even though proof-of-concept (POC) has become a common practice of organizations in decision-making, and internal and external coordination processes, the literature on strategic management has so far little taken on the subject. In this paper, we looked at the following questions: Where does the concept of ‘proof-of-concept' come from and how has it evolved over time? How does ‘proof-of-concept' relate to a peculiar category of proof? To answer these questions, we first conducted a historical perspective of the genesis of the concept, namely in the U.S. aerospace and aeronautical ecosystem. Then, we conducted an analytical study of the transfer of the notion in the ecosystems of biomedical, public research, new product development / innovation / entrepreneurship and finally information technologies. This paper showed that the term, which was born in the 1960s, gradually met with success in contexts where new actors had to be brought into the previously highly integrated design value chain, and this often upstream. In this sense, POC, as proof of validation and exploration, appears to be a particularly useful tool for ‘buyers' and ‘sellers' in processes with an exploratory dimension.
    Abstract: En dépit du fait que la preuve de concept ou POC soit devenue une pratique courante des organisations dans les processus de prise de décision et de coordination internes et externes, la littérature en management stratégique s'est jusqu'à présent peu emparée du sujet. Dans ce papier, nous nous sommes intéressés aux questions suivantes : D'où vient la notion de POC et comment a-t-elle évoluée au fil du temps ? En quoi le POC constitue une catégorie particulière de preuve ? Pour répondre à ces questions, nous avons d'abord réalisé une étude historique de la genèse du concept, à savoir dans l'écosystème aérospatial et aéronautique américain. Puis, nous avons mené une étude analytique du transfert de la notion dans les écosystèmes du biomédical, de la recherche publique, du développement de nouveaux produits / de l'innovation / de entrepreneuriat et enfin des technologies de l'information. Ce papier a permis de montrer que le terme, qui est né dans les années 1960, a progressivement rencontré un succès dans les contextes où il a fallu faire entrer de nouveaux acteurs dans la chaîne de valeur de la conception qui était jusqu'alors très intégrée, et ce souvent par l'amont. En ce sens, le POC, en tant preuve de validation et d'exploration, semble être un outil particulièrement utile aux « acheteurs » et aux « vendeurs » dans des processus avec une dimension exploratoire.
    Keywords: POC,TRL,Design,Validation,Exploration,Conception
    Date: 2020–06–03
  14. By: Crowley, Frank; Doran, Justin
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has had a sudden and drastic impact on labour supply and output In Ireland. As the Irish government responds, a key question is how covid-19 will impact people and places differently. There is considerable uncertainty around the implications of social distancing measures and remote working for the Irish labour market. The objective of this paper is to get a better understanding of the social distancing and remote working potential at an occupational, sector and regional level in Ireland. We generate two indices which capture the potential impact of Covid-19 through identifying (i) the occupations which may have the most potential to engage in social distancing procedures and (ii) the occupations which may have the most scope for remote working. This is accomplished using occupational level data from O*NET which provides very detailed information of the tasks performed by individuals with their occupations. The paper identifies that social distancing and remote working potential differs considerably across occupations, sectors and places. Examples of large employment which have relatively high indices are teaching occupations at secondary and third level and programme and software developers. While occupations which have large employment but which possess relative low indices are nurses and midwives and care workers. The potential for social distancing and remote work favours occupations located in the Greater Dublin region and provincial city regions. At a town level - more affluent, more densely and highly populated, better educated and better broadband provisioned towns have more jobs with greater potential for social distancing and remote working.
    Date: 2020

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