nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2020‒05‒04
seven papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Digital information systems: support or obstacle to democracy in organizations? By Maryse Salles; Raphaëlle Bour; Rémi Jardat
  2. The need for global coordination and cooperation transparency and uncertainty amid the COVID -19 outbreak By Ojo, Marianne
  3. Using Big Data to Expand Financial Services : Benefits and Risks By Abraham,Facundo; Schmukler,Sergio L.; Tessada,Jose
  4. Isolating the "Tech" from EdTech: Experimental Evidence on Computer Assisted Learning in China By Yue Ma; Robert W. Fairlie; Prashant Loyalka; Scott Rozelle
  5. The Divergence Between Industrial Infrastructure and Research Output among the GCC Member States By Osman Gulseven; Abdulrahman Elmi; Odai Bataineh
  6. Education during COVID-19 era: Are learners in a less-economically developed country ready for e-learning? By Alipio, Mark
  7. Defining misinformation, disinformation and malinformation: An urgent need for clarity during the COVID-19 infodemic By Darrin Baines; Robert J R Elliott

  1. By: Maryse Salles (IRIT - Institut de recherche en informatique de Toulouse - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Raphaëlle Bour (IRIT - Institut de recherche en informatique de Toulouse - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées, UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole); Rémi Jardat (LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologies, Economie et Management (EA 7363) - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Université Paris-Saclay, UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne)
    Abstract: Information systems are often presented as neutral and offering a simple reflect of reality. In this article, we present our vision of the digital information system genesis, to demonstrate that they are bearers of worldviews. They have an impact on democracy in organizations, as defined it in this article through five major characteristics. Through a filtering system between the "reality" of the organization and the information system, then between the information system and the digital information system, we will detail the different processes, actors and components of the filtering. So that, we will show how the digital information system is a lever or a brake on democracy in organizations.
    Abstract: Les systèmes d'information sont souvent présentés comme neutres et proposant un simple reflet de la réalité. Au travers de notre vision de la genèse du système d'information numérique, nous démontrerons qu'ils sont construits et porteurs de visions du monde. Ils impactent en cela la démocratie dans les organisations, telle que nous la définissons dans cet article au travers de ses cinq caractéristiques majeures. Par un système de filtrage entre la « réalité » de l'organisation et le système d'information, puis entre le système d'information et le système d'information numérique, nous détaillerons les différents processus, acteurs et composants du filtrage qui peuvent faire du système d'information numérique un levier ou un frein à la démocratie dans les organisations
    Keywords: Indicators,Governmentality,Information systems design methods,Democracy,Organisations,Digital technology,Computer ethics,Digital information systems,Corporate democracy,Information systems,Ethique informatique,Systèmes d'information numériques,Systèmes d'information,Gouvernementalité,Indicateurs,Technologie numérique,Méthodes de conception de systèmes d'information,Démocratie d'entreprise,Démocratie
    Date: 2020–04–15
  2. By: Ojo, Marianne
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how intricately linked the global community has become with the advent of globalization, rapid growth of Information Technology and the Internet Revolution. Since many global economies have become interdependent on each other – as further reflected by sectors who have generated greater domino effects on one other, there have been suggestions and recommendations for shorter supply chains. Just how far can associated risk levels and particularly those with seismic and systemic effects on the economy be mitigated – whilst ensuring that appropriate balance is maintained in assessing and estimating accurate and reliable forecasts – particularly where past historical data , to an extent, will be required to achieve such an assessment? The COVID pandemic has also highlighted that unexpected events such as recent developments will impact prior measures in such a way as never before – not only because of the unique attributes of this Crisis – both an economic and medical one, but also by virtue of the impact and interconnections globally. How reliable are prior measures and should this imply that less reliance will be placed on historical data and greater reliance on forward looking provisioning? Technological advances , it would appear, should have facilitated the mitigation of information asymmetries however, the pandemic also reflects the growing need for digital measures to keep economies functioning and will certainly play fundamental and formidable roles in the future workplace. Stay at home measures have been greatly facilitated through digital advancements, virtual communication and conferences and it is without doubt that new regulations in respect of internet regulation and privacy laws may be reviewed and revised in several jurisdictions and regions. Global coordination will certainly be required to overcome this pandemic. In addressing the afore mentioned questions, this papers aims to highlight , amongst other objectives how and why such a coordination can be achieved.
    Keywords: coordination; temporary pandemic emergency purchase programme ; forward looking standards; loan loss provisioning; enhanced targeted longer term refinancing operations; supply chains
    JEL: E58 E6 F16 K20 M41
    Date: 2020–04
  3. By: Abraham,Facundo; Schmukler,Sergio L.; Tessada,Jose
    Abstract: Big data is transforming financial services around the world. Advances in data analytics and computational power are allowing firms to exploit data in an easier, faster, and more reliable manner, and at a larger scale. By using big data, financial firms and new entrants from other sectors are able to provide more and better financial services. Governments are also exploring ways to use big data collected by the financial sector more systematically to get a better picture of the financial system as a whole and the overall economy. Despite its benefits, the wider use of big data has raised concerns related to consumer privacy, data security, discrimination, data accuracy, and competition. Hence, policy makers have started to regulate and monitor the use of big data by financial institutions and to think about how to use big data for the benefit of all.
    Keywords: ICT Applications,Legal Institutions of the Market Economy,Financial Structures,Financial Sector Policy
    Date: 2019–11–01
  4. By: Yue Ma; Robert W. Fairlie; Prashant Loyalka; Scott Rozelle
    Abstract: EdTech which includes online education, computer assisted learning (CAL), and remote instruction was expanding rapidly even before the current full-scale substitution for in-person learning at all levels of education around the world because of the coronavirus pandemic. Studies of CAL interventions have consistently found large positive effects, bolstering arguments for the widespread use of EdTech. However CAL programs, often held after school, provide not only computer-based instruction, but often additional non-technology based inputs such as more time on learning and instructional support by facilitators. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to carefully explore the possible channels by which CAL programs might affect academic outcomes among schoolchildren. We isolate and test the technology-based effects of CAL and additional parameters from the theoretical model, by designing a novel multi-treatment field experiment with more than four thousand schoolchildren in rural China. Although we find evidence of positive overall CAL program effects on academic outcomes, when we isolate the technology-based effect of CAL (over and above traditional pencil-and-paper learning) we generally find small to null effects. Our empirical results suggest that, at times, the “Tech” in EdTech may have relatively small effects on academic outcomes, which has important implications for the continued, rapid expansion of technologies such as CAL throughout the world.
    Keywords: computer-assisted learning, EdTech, ICT, pencil effects, student learning, educational productivity, RCT
    JEL: I21 O15
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Osman Gulseven; Abdulrahman Elmi; Odai Bataineh
    Abstract: In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the industry, communication, and research infrastructure among the GCC member states as measured by the United Nations sustainable development goal 9. SDG 9 provides a clear framework for measuring the performance of nations in achieving sustainable industrialization. Three pillars of this goal are defined as quality logistics and efficient transportation, availability of mobile-cellular network with high-speed internet access, and quality research output. Based on the data from both the United Nations' SDG database and the Bertelsmann Stiftung SDG-index, our results suggest that while most of the sub-goals in SDG 9 are achieved, significant challenges remain ahead. Notably, the research output of the GCC member states is not in par with that of the developed world. We suggest the GCC decisionmakers initiate national and supranational research schemes in order to boost research and development in the region.
    Date: 2020–04
  6. By: Alipio, Mark
    Abstract: Drawn on the existing pandemic and potential shift to full e-learning, this study has focused on the descriptive evaluation of readiness for e-learning of higher education students in a less-economically developed country. This is a descriptive online survey employing questionnaires to elicit data on the readiness of students for e-learning. A total of 880 Filipino students responded and provided consent to participate. Ratings were descriptively analyzed using mean, frequency, and percentages. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between each demographic profile and readiness for e-learning. A p-value below 0.05 was considered significant. Of the 880 sample, majority were in the lower middle class and private higher education institution. Most of the respondents answered ‘No’ in all e-learning readiness items. The odds of scoring low in the readiness scale was higher among younger and female respondents. With reference to high income class, the odds of scoring low in the readiness scale was approximately 16.23, 12.02, 5.21, and 1.87 times more likely when students belong to low, lower middle, middle, and upper middle class, respectively. The type of school is not associated with low readiness probability. School officials may first address the lack of digital skills among students and formulate programs that would capacitate them. The possible shift for e-learning should be considered if financial, operational, and Internet connectivity issues of learners in the low-income sector and rural areas are addressed. More strategic planning and quality management mechanisms should be directed towards an equitable and inclusive education without undermining quality learning.
    Keywords: Coronavirus,COVID-19,Education,E-learning,Less-economically developed country,Philippines,Online education
    JEL: I10 I18 I23 I28 I30
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Darrin Baines (University of Bournemouth); Robert J R Elliott (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: COVID-19 is an unprecedented global health crisis that will have immeasurable consequences for our economic and social well-being. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the director general of the World Health Organization, stated ''We're not just fighting an epidemic; we're fighting an infodemic''. Currently, there is no robust scientific basis to the existing definitions of false information used in the fight against the COVID-19 infodemic. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the use of a novel taxonomy and related model (based upon a conceptual framework that synthesizes insights from information science, philosophy, media studies and politics) can produce new scientific definitions of mis-, dis- and malinformation. We undertake our analysis from the viewpoint of information systems research. The conceptual approach to defining mis-, dis- and malinformation can be applied to a wide range of empirical examples and, if applied properly, may prove useful in fighting the COVID-19 infodemic. In sum, our research suggests that: (i) analyzing all types of information is important in the battle against the COVID-19 infodemic; (ii) a scientific approach is required so that different methods are not used by different studies; (iii) ''misinformation'', as an umbrella term, can be confusing and should be dropped from use; (iv) clear, scientific definitions of information types will be needed going forward; (v) malinformation is an overlooked phenomenon involving reconfigurations of the truth.
    Keywords: COVID-19, infodemic, misinformation, disinformation, malinformation
    Date: 2020–04

This nep-ict issue is ©2020 by Marek Giebel. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.