nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2020‒03‒23
six papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. AI Watch - National strategies on Artificial Intelligence: A European perspective in 2019 By Vincent Van Roy
  2. Spread of Information, Inequality and Cooperation By Pablo Brañas-Garza; Elena Molis; Levent Neyse
  3. Cyber incidents, security measures and financial returns: Empirical evidence from Dutch firms By Milena Dinkova; Ramy El-Dardiry; Bastiaan Overvest
  4. Efficiency Perspective on Telecom Mobile Data Traffic By Riko Hendrawan
  5. Opportunities and challenges in field data validation and corroboration: Matching household survey data with project monitoring data in Ethiopia By Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.; Abate, Gashaw T.; Bernard, Tanguy
  6. Promoting seed systems for stress-tolerant varieties at scale: Potential for bundling with insurance-advisory services By Cecchi, Francesco; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Omondi, Simon; Chegeh, Joseph; Tabalia, Amos; Kramer, Berber

  1. By: Vincent Van Roy (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: One of the key priorities of the European Commission’s Coordinated Plan on AI is to encourage Member States to develop their national AI strategies by the end of 2019, outlining investments levels and implementation measures. The objective of this report is to present and gather information on all EU Member States' national AI strategies in a structured and comprehensive way. It aims to help Member States to compare their strategy and to identify areas for strengthening synergies and collaboration. Published national AI strategies are analysed to identify the most relevant policy areas and to develop a common AI Policy Framework that can be used for the presentation of policy initiatives. In this sense, this report follows a similar approach as used in the AI strategies, by presenting policy initiatives from a holistic perspective. To highlight the numerous economic and policy outlooks from which the transformative nature of AI can be explored, this report presents policy initiatives across various policy areas, including human capital (i.e. educational development), from the lab to the market (i.e. research & development, innovation, business and public sector development), networking (i.e. collaboration and dissemination), regulation (i.e. ethical guidelines, legislation and standardisation) and infrastructure (i.e. data and telecommunication infrastructure). In this endeavour, the European Commission notably collaborated with the OECD on collecting and analysing national strategies on Artificial Intelligence in the EU Member States. This report will be updated and released on an annual basis.
    Keywords: Industrial research and innovation, Financial and economic analysis, Digital Economy, ICT R&D and Innovation
    Date: 2020–02
  2. By: Pablo Brañas-Garza (Loyola University, Cordoba); Elena Molis (Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University of Granada.); Levent Neyse (SOEP at DIW, Berlin, Germany)
    Abstract: With the rise of information technologies, citizens can compare public good efficiencies between countries easier now and being aware of large efficiency differences may affect tax compliance behavior. We experimentally test whether contributions in the public goods game are sensitive to comparative information regarding marginal per capita returns of other groups. Our experimental results indeed suggest that comparative information creates polarization in contribution levels in the presence of large inequality between comparison groups.
    Keywords: Public Goods; Inequality; Cooperation; Information; Experiment
    JEL: C9 H4 D8
  3. By: Milena Dinkova (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Ramy El-Dardiry (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Bastiaan Overvest (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: This CPB discussion paper investigates the cybersecurity of Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises, the security measures they take and the relationship thereof with financial results. Often, small and medium-sized enterprises are identified as a particularly vulnerable group for cyber incidents. However, there is not much academic research focusing on the cyber security costs for those firms. In this paper, we employ representative survey data on ICT use and administrative tax record data on Dutch firms to understand how cybersecurity investments relate to the probability of cyber incidents and firm profitability. This dataset allows us to control for firm size, industry, and IT organization.
    JEL: D22 D83 G14 M15
    Date: 2020–03
  4. By: Riko Hendrawan (Telkom University, Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir No. 47, 40251, Bandung, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Kristian WA Nugroho Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty Economic and Business, Telkom University, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Gayuh T Permana Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty Economic and Business, Telkom University, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The global industry is transforming into a digital world, evidenced by digital transformation performed by almost all of the industry sectors. One of the digital drivers is the support of connectivity provided by the telecommunication industry. The increasing mobile subscribers, along with the growth of mobile data traffic, is the sign of digital transformation itself. However, the rise of OTT (Over the Top) service providers tends to acquire the revenue share of the current telecom industry, seeing the trend of voice and SMS revenue that projected to decline.Methodology/Technique - This research is intended to measure the impact of increasing mobile data traffic that mostly caused by OTT services to telecom efficiency. The efficiency measurement & analysis were performed using the Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) & Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method.Findings - By using the SFA method, Maxis (Malaysia) got the highest efficiency score (0.98), followed by AIS (Thailand) with efficiency score 0.94 and Indosat Ooredoo (Indonesia) as the least efficient telecom provider (0.5). However, by using the DEA method, TLKM (Indonesia) got the highest efficient (0.98), and Celcom Axiata (Malaysia) was the least efficient (0.73/0.8).Novelty - The compelling results of this study are variable total asset variable had a significant negative impact on the efficiency score, and the variable of mobile data traffic was not significantly impacting the efficiency value (t-Ratio 0.71).Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Telecom Operators; Efficiency; Mobile Data Traffic
    JEL: M10 M15 M19
    Date: 2020–03–30
  5. By: Makhija, Simrin; Spielman, David J.; Abate, Gashaw T.; Bernard, Tanguy
    Abstract: The application of digital tools to agricultural extension and advisory services has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Among the many advantages it offers is the ability to capture and analyze large amounts of data on farmers, their farms, crops, and fields; and the choices they make about input use, technologies, management practices, and marketing.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agricultural extension, data collection, monitoring techniques, innovation adoption, Information and Communication Technologies (icts), technology adoption, household survey data, video technology,
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Cecchi, Francesco; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Omondi, Simon; Chegeh, Joseph; Tabalia, Amos; Kramer, Berber
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers may suffer losses from ex-treme weather events, pests and disease. This is expected to worsen in the face of climate change. Natural disasters are a threat to food security not only ex post, by inducing farmers to sell their as-sets, keep children out of school or borrow at high rates; they also threaten livelihoods ex ante, by discouraging farmers from investing in high-return practices and technologies (Elbers et al., 2007). Fortunately, significant progress has been made in the past two decades in developing and releasing seeds with genetic traits that are more tolerant to weather shocks, pests and disease. These im-provements in seed technology are offering prom-ising pathways to improve farmers’ adaptive ca-pacity, increasing investments and thereby agri-cultural productivity (Emerick et al., 2016).
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, insurance, seeds, advisory services, technology, Information and Communication Technologies (icts), smallholders, smartphones,
    Date: 2019

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