nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2020‒01‒20
eleven papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Technology, Intangible Assets and the Decline of the Labor Share By Mary O'Mahony; Michela Vecchi; Francesco Venturini
  2. Yes, The Medium Matters: How Facebook and Twitter boost Populism in Europe By Piergiuseppe Fortunato; Marco Pecoraro
  3. Merger Policy in Digital Markets: An Ex-Post Assessment By Elena Argentesi; Paolo Buccirossi; Emilio Calvano; Tomaso Duso; Alessia Marrazzo; Salvatore Nava
  4. Local ambassadors promote mobile banking in Northern Peru By Marcos Agurto; Habiba Djebbari; Sudipta Sarangi; Brenda Silupu; Carolina Trivelli; Javier Torres
  5. Capital Composition and the Declining Labor Share By Maya Eden; Paul Gaggl
  6. Manufacturing Export and ICT Infrastructure in West Africa: Investigating the Roles of Economic and Political Institutions By Ibukun Beecroft; Evans S. Osabuohien; Uchenna R. Efobi; Isaiah Olurinola; Romanus A. Osabohien
  8. Does ICT-Trade Openness ensure Energy and Environmental Sustainability? Empirical Evidence from selected South Asian Economies By Murshed, Muntasir
  9. Relation of Lecturer’s Competency, Motivation and Utilization of Information and Communication Technologies to Job Satisfaction and Performance By M, Mirfan; Gani, H. Mursalim Umar; Serang, Serlin; Arifin, H. Zaenal; Jamali, Hisnol
  10. Co-producing Mobility: Lessons from Ridesharing for a More Just and Sustainable Autonomous Future By Griffin, Greg Phillip
  11. New Tech v. New Deal: Fintech as a Systemic Phenomenon By Omarova, Saule T.; Library, Cornell

  1. By: Mary O'Mahony; Michela Vecchi; Francesco Venturini
    Abstract: We investigate the decline of the labor share in a world characterized by rapid technological changes and increasing heterogeneity of capital assets. Our theoretical model allows for these assets to affect the labor share in different directions depending on the capital-labor substitution/complementary relationship and the workers’ skill level. We test the predictions of our model using a large cross-country, cross-industry data set, considering different forms of tangible and intangible capital inputs. Our results show that, over the 1970-2007 period, the decline of the labor share has been mainly driven by technical change and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) assets, mitigated by increasing investments in R&D based knowledge assets. Extending to other forms of intangible capital from 1995 onwards, we find that intangible investments related to innovation increase the labor share while those related to the organisation of firms contribute to its decline, particularly for the low and intermediate skilled workers. Our results are robust to an array of econometric issues, namely heterogeneity, cross sectional dependence, and endogeneity.
    Keywords: labor shares, technological change, ICT capital, intangible capital
    JEL: C23 E24 E25 O33
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Piergiuseppe Fortunato; Marco Pecoraro
    Abstract: This paper examines how socio-economic characteristics, changes in the technology of political communication and their interactions affect the sentiments of the electorate and favor the spread of populist ideas in Europe. Using both European-wide and national surveys we find a significant association between exposure to online political activity and diffusion of populist ideas such as Euroscepticism only among less educated and economically vulnerable individuals. We also show that it is not the use of the internet per se that matters but the specific use of social networks for political activity.
    Keywords: Populism, Euroscepticism, Internet, Social Networks, Education
    JEL: D72 N34 L82 L86 Z13
    Date: 2020–01
  3. By: Elena Argentesi; Paolo Buccirossi; Emilio Calvano; Tomaso Duso; Alessia Marrazzo; Salvatore Nava
    Abstract: This paper presents a broad retrospective evaluation of mergers and merger decisions in the digital sector. We first discuss the most crucial features of digital markets such as network effects, multi-sidedness, big data, and rapid innovation that create important challenges for competition policy. We show that these features have been key determinants of the theories of harm in major merger cases in the past few years. We then analyse the characteristics of almost 300 acquisitions carried out by three major digital companies –Amazon, Facebook, and Google –between 2008 and 2018. We cluster target companies on their area of economic activity and show that they span a wide range of economic sectors. In most cases, their products and services appear to be complementary to those supplied by the acquirers. Moreover, target companies seem to be particularly young, being four-years-old or younger in nearly 60% of cases at the time of the acquisition. Finally, we examine two important merger cases, Facebook/Instagram and Google/Waze, providing a systematic assessment of the theories of harm considered by the UK competition authorities as well as evidence on the evolution of the market after the transactions were approved. We discuss whether the CAs performed complete and careful analyses to foresee the competitive consequences of the investigated mergers and whether a more effective merger control regime can be achieved within the current legal framework.
    Keywords: digital markets, mergers, network effects, big data, platforms, ex-post, antitrust
    JEL: L40 K21
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Marcos Agurto (Universidad de Piura); Habiba Djebbari (Aix-Mareseille Universite); Sudipta Sarangi (Virginia Tech); Brenda Silupu (Universidad de Piura); Carolina Trivelli (Instituto de Estudios Peruanos); Javier Torres (Universidad del Pacifico)
    Abstract: We experiment with a novel way to boost information acquisition that exploits existing social ties between the promoter of a new financial technology and community members. We offer information and training workshops on a new mobile-money platform in periurban and rural areas in Peru. In the treatment group, workshops are led by promoters who are personally known to the invited participants. In the control group, comparable individuals are invited to attend similar workshops, but the workshops are led by agents external to the community. Our findings suggest that lack of information impedes product adoption, which is itself limited by lack of trust in the individual who provides the information.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion, social networks, information transmission, trust
    JEL: D91 G23 I22 I31 O33
    Date: 2020–01
  5. By: Maya Eden; Paul Gaggl
    Abstract: To what extent can technological advances in the production of capital account for the recent, worldwide decline in the labor income share? We pose two challenges to the automation narrative: first, estimates of the elasticity of substitution (EOS) between capital and labor tend to fall below or around one, suggesting that a decline in the price of capital should not lead to a decline in the labor income share. Second, we illustrate that, despite technological improvements, the price of capital relative to output has remained roughly constant, worldwide. This poses a challenge to the view that cheaper capital has caused the displacement of workers. We show that a more nuanced approach, which takes seriously the composition of capital, ascribes a prominent role to the automation hypothesis. Though information and communications (ICT) capital is a small fraction of the capital stock, it is highly substitutable with labor, and its user cost declined sharply over the last few decades. A framework that distinguishes between ICT and non-ICT capital is empirically plausible and suggests that automation accounts for more than one quarter of the global decline in the labor share, even if the aggregate EOS is substantially less than unity.
    Keywords: technological change, labor share, ICT
    JEL: E25 E22 J24 J31 O33
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Ibukun Beecroft (Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Evans S. Osabuohien (CEPDeR, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria); Uchenna R. Efobi (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria); Isaiah Olurinola (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria); Romanus A. Osabohien (Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria)
    Abstract: Investment in ICT infrastructure development is crucial to international trade through its provision of reliable interconnectedness via communication. This can be augmented via institutional intervention, which addresses opportunistic or rent-seeking behaviours of ICT infrastructure providers and reduces operational costs, among others. However, ICT infrastructural provision in West Africa remains low, necessitating the current drive by the regional economic community (ECOWAS) to make some advancement in this regard for enhanced trade outcomes of members. With the aim of unbundling institutional framework in the infrastructure-export nexus, this study empirically examines the relationship between manufacturing export and ICT infrastructure and articulates how economic and political institutions influence such interaction. Focusing on 14 West African countries, the study uses the Systems Generalised Method of Moments (SGMM) technique to address possible issues of endogeneity and reverse causality. The results reveal that in the face of improved economic and political institutions, particularly those related to enforcement of contracts, the influence of ICT infrastructure in strengthening the exporting capacity from the manufacturing sector is greater. In addition, some measures of economic and political institutions matter more than others. The study recommends that ECOWAS countries promote better institutional quality, particularly in terms of transparency, accountability, corruption control, regulatory quality and the rule of law.
    Keywords: Dynamic panel data; Infrastructural provision; Infrastructural development; Institutional framework; Institutional quality; Manufacturing export; Manufacturing value added
    JEL: F14 O14 O17 O43 P45
    Date: 2019–01
  7. By: Tibahary, Abdul Rahman (Universitas Muhammadiyah Palu)
    Abstract: Information technology has a profound influence on the world economy. In relation to extend of these technologies, especially telecommunications, multimedia and information technology (telematics) can eventually change the order of the organization and social relationships. In this study question the fulfillment about statements of the tax payable on the E-Commerce transaction which of course will not be apart from the tax law concerning on the E-Commerce transaction, statements against the tax payable on the E-Commerce transaction and legal certainty in conducting the tax report on the E-commerce transaction. The method used in this research is descriptive analytic is a research method that aims to describe the facts in the form of the data to the primary legal materials in related to the form of laws and regulations and the secondary legal materials (doctrine, the expert opinion of the leading law) as well as tertiary legal materials. While the approach in this study used a qualitative which seeks to combine normative and empirical. In this research are expected to acquire a comprehensive describe of the tax payable statement on the E-Commerce transaction. The result on the tax on E-Commerce transactions equal to the ordinary transactions in accordance with the explanation in Article 11 section (1) Law Concerning Income Tax that regulated Value Added Tax and Sales Tax on Luxury Goods adheres to the accrual principle, it meaning the tax occurs in when the delivery of taxable goods or on the delivery of taxable services, although payment for such delivery has not yet fully accepted or received, or in the importation of taxable goods. When the tax payable for transactions made through the E-Commerce are subject to this article. The tax payable related to the report which is derived from the transactions on the E-Commerce it can be undertaken with the approach of harmonization and convergence so that certainty of the tax report above electronic transactions can be implement as well as possible.
    Date: 2019–02–27
  8. By: Murshed, Muntasir
    Abstract: Consumption of fossil fuels has triggered worldwide awareness to attain sustainability with respect to ensuring adequate energy access and mitigating environmental adversities, globally. Against this background, this paper aimed at investigating the impacts of enhancing ICT-trade openness on the transition from non-renewable to renewable energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the context of six South Asian economies. The overall results from the econometric analyses confirm that greater openness to ICT-trade leads to greater consumption of renewable energy, reduces the intensity of energy-use and enhances the access to clean fuel and technology for cooking. However, although ICT trade is found to foster renewable energy consumption across South Asia, it fails to ensure renewable energy transition completely since greater openness to ICT-trade curbs the share of renewables in the aggregate energy consumption figures. Moreover, trade of ICT goods is found to reduce the levels of carbon emissions as well. Thus, these results impose key policy implications for the governments with respect to ensuring energy security alongside environmental sustainability across South Asia.
    Keywords: ICT; renewable energy; non-renewable energy; carbon emissions; cross-sectional dependence
    JEL: Q20
    Date: 2019
  9. By: M, Mirfan; Gani, H. Mursalim Umar; Serang, Serlin; Arifin, H. Zaenal; Jamali, Hisnol
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation of competency, motivation and utilization of information and communication technologies (ICT) on job satisfaction and lecturer’s performance at five College of informatics management and computer technique in Makassar. This study uses survey data collection Cross section through a questionnaire. As many as 285 lecturers are eligible to be population and determination of a sample of 160 respondents using the formula Slovin. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM) with AMOS assistance. The results found that the
    Date: 2018–09–21
  10. By: Griffin, Greg Phillip (Texas A&M Transportation Institute)
    Abstract: Big changes in technology create big opportunities for sustainability. Decreasing the number of cars on the road through carpooling can mitigate many problems related to transportation, including traffic congestion, emissions, and safety. Mobile information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide communicative and financial capabilities, termed affordances; to make carpooling much more convenient. However, research has yet to distinguish the role of affordances in reaching a critical mass of drivers. This chapter showcases empirical results from an in-depth study of a carpooling app, coupled with an innovative policy pilot to provide toll road discounts for carpool trips registered with the program. Results from the pilot countered with a for-profit model suggest drivers require sufficient reimbursement for travel costs and coordination time, to reach a critical mass needed to support a competitive travel option. However, recruitment tactics such as paid and organic media coverage, face-to-face events and incentives, and driver-focused outreach support growth of the carpool system registration, and use. Additional studies are needed to evaluate different combinations of ridesharing affordances and transportation policies to determine whether communities can realize the benefits of a critical mass of ICT-supported carpooling.
    Date: 2018–12–06
  11. By: Omarova, Saule T.; Library, Cornell
    Abstract: 36 Yale Journal on Regulation 735 (2019). Fintech is the hottest topic in finance today. Recent advances in cryptography, data analytics, and artificial intelligence are visibly “disrupting” traditional methods of delivering financial services and conducting financial transactions. Less visibly, fintech is also changing the way we think about finance: The rise of fintech is gradually recasting our collective understanding of the financial system as simply another sphere of normatively neutral information technology and objective computer science. By making financial transactions faster, cheaper, and more easily accessible, fintech seems to promise a micro-level “win-win” solution to the financial system’s many ills. This Article challenges such narratives and presents an alternative account of fintech as a systemic, macro-level phenomenon. Grounding the analysis of evolving fintech trends in a broader institutional context, the Article exposes the normative and political significance of the current fintech moment. It argues that the arrival of fintech enables a potentially decisive shift in the underlying public-private balance of powers, competencies, and roles in the financial system. In developing this argument, the Article makes three principal scholarly contributions. First, it introduces the concept of the New Deal settlement in finance: a fundamental political arrangement, in force for nearly a century, pursuant to which profit-seeking private actors retain control over allocating capital and generating financial risks, while the sovereign public bears responsibility for maintaining systemic financial stability. Second, the Article advances a novel conceptual framework for understanding the deep-seated financial dynamics that have eroded the New Deal settlement in recent decades. In particular, it offers a working taxonomy of principal mechanisms that both (a) enable private market actors to continuously synthesize tradable financial assets and scale up trading activities, and (b) undermine the public’s ability to manage the resulting system-wide risks. Finally, the Article shows how and why specific fintech applications – cryptocurrencies, distributed ledger technologies, digital crowdfunding, and robo-advising – are poised to amplify the effect of these destabilizing mechanisms, and thus potentially exacerbate the tensions and imbalances in today’s financial markets and the broader economy. It is this potential that renders fintech a public policy challenge of the highest order.
    Date: 2018–07–30

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