nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2019‒10‒21
five papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. The IT-value stream model for Hospital Networks By Hubertus Franke; Martina Hasseler; Denise Dick; Stephanie Krebs; Anna Lietz; Siegfried Bublitz
  2. Review of national policy initiatives in support of digital and AI-driven innovation By Caroline Paunov; Sandra Planes-Satorra; Greta Ravelli
  3. Technology Adoption and Access to Credit via Mobile Phones By Gupta, Apoorv; Ponticelli, Jacopo; Tesei, Andrea
  4. Digitalization and Firm Performance in Thailand: Evidence from Firm Dividend Payout Policy By Ek-anong Tangrukwaraskul; Kiriya Kulchanarat
  5. Building Knowledge-Based Economies in Africa: A Systematic Review of Policies and Strategies By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo

  1. By: Hubertus Franke (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences); Martina Hasseler (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences); Denise Dick (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences); Stephanie Krebs (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences); Anna Lietz (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences); Siegfried Bublitz (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: Hospitals, especially in regional settings, often struggle to fulfil all medical demands placed on them due their size and capacity. Thus, it is helpful to cooperate with other hospitals, perhaps in the neighbourhood as a network to exchange resources such as technical equipment or medi-cal staff such as qualified nurses who are in high demand. To solve this problem we can trans-fer some theoretical aspects from other similar situations such as network cooperation in con-nected industry-companies. This only works by using modern Information Technology based on internet technology and connected IT-Processes. In Germany, the government has implemented an extensive scientific and industrial project called ?Industry 4.0?.The idea behind "Industry 4.0" is that all industry processes use digital methods, which are connected but decentralized.Through the use of Smart technology (computer, smartphone or personal digital assistant - PDA), a Digital Twin representing a complete digital footprint of all units, products and re-sources which are not digital (i.e. human employees) can be created and all digital processes work together (cloud based) to solve problems in real time.This idea of "Industry 4.0" is useful for Hospital Networks, which often have similar structures. To develop Industry 4.0 for Hospital Networks, we need a special modelling method. An exten-sion of the value stream model (the IT-value stream model) can fulfil this task. In this publica-tion, we demonstrate how an extension of the value stream model can solve the resource prob-lems in Hospital Networks.
    Keywords: Hospital Network, Industry 4.0, Digital Twin, Lean Production, value stream model.
    JEL: I12 C63 C51
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Caroline Paunov (OECD); Sandra Planes-Satorra (OECD); Greta Ravelli (OECD)
    Abstract: What can we learn from new policies implemented in different OECD countries to foster digital and AI-driven innovation? This document reviews and extracts lessons from 12 national policy initiatives (four AI strategies and eight policy programmes) aimed at supporting breakthrough digital and AI-driven innovation and the application of those innovations by industry. Most selected policy initiatives actively involve multiple stakeholders from public research, industry and government, have mixed public-private funding models and seek international co-operation on AI. AI and digital research and innovation centres encourage interdisciplinarity, reduce hierarchies within centres and increase the autonomy of staff to enhance centres’ agility and spur creativity. AI strategies set specific actions to strengthen AI research and capabilities, support business adoption of AI and develop standards for the ethical use of AI. Responsible data-access and sharing regulations, infrastructure investments, and measures to ensure that AI contributes to sustainable and inclusive growth are other priorities.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence strategies, digital innovation, digital technologies, innovation policy
    JEL: O30 O31 O33 O38 O25 I28
    Date: 2019–10–17
  3. By: Gupta, Apoorv; Ponticelli, Jacopo; Tesei, Andrea
    Abstract: Farmers in developing countries often lack access to timely and reliable information about modern technologies that are essential to improve agricultural productivity. The recent diffusion of mobile phones has the potential to overcome these barriers by making information available to those previously unconnected. In this paper we study the effect of mobile phone network expansion in rural India on adoption of high yielding variety seeds and chemical fertilizers. Our empirical strategy exploits geographical variation in the construction of mobile phone towers under a large government program targeting areas without existing coverage. To explore the role of mobile phones in mitigating information frictions we analyze the content of 1.4 million phone calls made by farmers to a major call center for agricultural advice. Farmers seek advice on which seed varieties and fertilizers better meet their needs and how to use them. We find that areas receiving mobile phone coverage experience higher adoption of these technologies. We also observe that farmers are often unaware of the eligibility criteria and loan terms offered by subsidized credit programs. Consistently, we find that areas receiving mobile phone coverage experience higher take-up of agricultural credit.
    Keywords: agriculture; Credit Card; HYV Seeds; India
    JEL: E51 G21 Q16
    Date: 2019–08
  4. By: Ek-anong Tangrukwaraskul (Kasetsart University); Kiriya Kulchanarat (Kasetsart University)
    Abstract: Digitalization has continuously transformed economy in the global landscape, including developing countries in ASEAN region. Accordingly, Thailand has established a framework for digital economy development alongside with the ?Thailand 4.0? policy to enhance the country competitiveness. As part of this initiative, healthcare services are profoundly promoted and aimed to be Asia?s capital of health and wellness, as well as a number of digital projects are initiated to drive forward this digitalization. Consequently, businesses in both ICT and healthcare sector should be beneficial from this policy, and should reveal in their financial performance. In corporate finance, firm?s dividend decision could provide useful information about firm performance, and might be taken into consideration when making their investment decision. This paper examines the relationship between dividend per share and financial performance using panel data from Thailand listed firms in ICT and healthcare sectors during the period 2009-2018. In order to investigate such relationship, return on asset (ROA) is a proxy for firm financial performance while firm size, asset tangibility and leverage are treated as controlled variables. Regression results confirms the differences of such relationship between the two sectors. In ICT sector, both firm size and dividend per share shows positive and significant relationship to the firm performance, which provide evidence in support of both Signaling and Bird-in-hand hypotheses of dividend policy theory. Contrary, there is no clear evidence from firms in the Healthcare sector, whose financial performance only depends significantly on asset tangibility but not on dividend.
    Keywords: Digitalization, Dividend Policy, Firm Performance, Signaling Hypothesis, Thailand Stock Exchange
    JEL: F39 O39
    Date: 2019–10
  5. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: Compared to other regions of the world, Africa is lagging in its drive toward knowledge-based economies. This study systematically reviews the literature in order to highlight the policies and strategies with which African countries can accelerate their current drive towards building knowledge-based economies. These are discussed in terms of three pillars of the World Bank’s knowledge economy framework. They are the indices for: (i) education and skilled population, (ii) information and communication technology and (iii) economic incentives and institutional regime.
    Keywords: Knowledge economy; Development; Africa
    JEL: O10 O30 O38 O55 O57
    Date: 2019–01

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