nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2019‒09‒09
ten papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Data-sharing in IoT Ecosystems from a Competition Law Perspective: The Example of Connected Cars By Wolfgang Kerber
  3. When Technological Advance Meets Physician Learning in Drug Prescribing By Domenico Depalo; Jay Bhattacharya; Vincenzo Atella; Federico Belotti
  4. Exploiting the ?Communist Threat?, for the Privatized Internet By Noel Packard
  5. Crime and Networks: 10 Policy Lessons By Lindquist, Matthew J.; Zenou, Yves
  6. Exploring the Use of Data-driven Journalism in Thai Mass Media By Monwipa Wongrujira
  8. There's an app feature for that: Establishing user preferred mobile app features through asynchronous online interviews By Andrea Potgieter; Chris Rensleigh
  9. A 10-year Descriptive Analysis of Media Management Research By Siriwan Anantho
  10. Adoption of herd management smartphone apps in German dairy farming By Michels, Marius; Bonke, Vanessa; Mußhoff, Oliver

  1. By: Wolfgang Kerber (Philipps University Marburg)
    Abstract: This paper analyses whether competition law can help to solve problems of access to data and interoperability in IoT ecosystems, where often one firm has exclusive control of the data produced by a smart device (and of the technical access to this device). Such a gatekeeper position can lead to the elimination of competition for after-market and other complementary services in such IoT ecosystems. This problem is analysed both from an economic and a legal perspective, and also generally for IoT ecosystems as well as for the much discussed problems of “access to in-vehicle data and resources†in connected cars, where the “extended vehicle†concept of the car manufacturers leads to such positions of exclusive control. The paper analyses, in particular, the competition rules about abusive behavior of dominant firms (Art. 102 TFEU) and of firms with “relative market power†(§ 20 (1) GWB) in German competition law. These provisions might offer (if appropriately applied and amended) at least some solutions for these data access problems. Competition law, however, might not be sufficient for dealing with all or most of these problems, i.e. that also additional solutions might be needed (data portability, direct data (access) rights, or sector-specific regulation).
    Keywords: data access, Internet of Things, data sharing, data access, competition, digital economy, connected cars
    JEL: K23 L62 L86 O33
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Manveen Singh (Jindal Global Law School, O.P. Jindal Global University)
    Abstract: Standards and standards-setting organizations (SSOs) have played a crucial role in shaping the innovation landscape for over three decades, especially in the information and communication technologies (ICT) sector. The advancement in mobile telecommunication and the Internet has led to a fundamental change in the way individuals communicate with each other. Devices such as smartphones, tablets, laptops and smart watches bear complex mechanical and technological features and perform multiple functionalities by connecting seamlessly. However, in order for the interoperability of these devices and their functionalities to come through, there is a requirement of a common set of specifications and interfaces, in the form of standards. Standards are widely acknowledged to be the mainstay of modern economy and can lead to an increase in the value of consumer products, as well as increased rates of innovation. The setting of standards and commercializing of innovation at large is facilitated by voluntary associations called SSOs. Competing firms come together under the auspices of SSOs to collaboratively select and adopt uniform technical standards. It is worth noting that the benefits brought about by these standards have a greater visibility in the ICT sector, primarily on account of two reasons. First, in order to make complex technologies work, there is a requirement of hundreds of thousands of patents. Second, there is a strong need for devices and networks to interoperate in the ICT sector, which makes it absolutely necessary to develop common technical standards.SSOs are further tasked with the responsibility of fostering a regime of rapid technological innovation by balancing the interests of their members; their membership comprising of patent owners or standard essential patent (SEP) holders on one hand and implementers or licensees on the other. While the patent owners are involved in research and development (R&D) and look to maximize their earnings from licensing out their SEPs, the implementers look to seek licenses from SEP holders on terms that are fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND), in order to use the patented technology in the manufacturing of standard-compliant end-use products. There is yet, a third category of member companies that are vertically integrated and besides owning SEPs, also operate actively in the downstream market. As members of SSOs, these firms compete in the market on both, horizontal and vertical levels, which gives rise to a possible likelihood of collusion albeit theoretically. It is because of this aspect of standard-setting, that the role of SSOs becomes extremely important.A pertinent question that arises then is, what are SSOs and how do they function? Furthermore, what is the legality of SSOs and how have they helped in the evolution of industry standards? In an attempt to answer the aforementioned questions, the focus of this paper shall center around standardization and standard-setting organizations, while tracing the evolution of standards and standard-setting activities in the ICT sector.
    Keywords: Standards, standardization, SSO, patents, SEP, technology
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2019–07
  3. By: Domenico Depalo; Jay Bhattacharya; Vincenzo Atella; Federico Belotti
    Abstract: The support for scientific investigation in biomedicine depends in part on the adoption of new knowledge into medical practice. We investigate how a technological advance, in the form of a large and influential 2010 randomized controlled study, changed physician practice in statin (a medication used to manage high cholesterol levels) prescribing. We analyze data representative of the Italian population for the period 2003-2014. Our analysis accounts for possible non-random sorting of patients into treatment. We show that both doctors and patients responded promptly to this technological shock, changing the mix of patients who received therapy, drug dosing, and frequency of testing for side effects, as well as patient adherence to therapy. The results show that investments in scientific knowledge can rapidly diffuse into practice in professions where continuing education is the norm.
    JEL: I1 I12 O33
    Date: 2019–08
  4. By: Noel Packard (University of Auckland)
    Abstract: Levine?s Surveillance Valley reports how the Internet was privatized without public debate or resistance but overlooks decades of neoliberal economic and anti-communist purging history that had chilling effects on public resistance to Internet privatization - that history gap is explored here. How did military-industrial-complex contractors, using neoliberal and Communist threat rational, incentivize Internet development, while lessening the possibility of public interference to Internet privatization? Weber?s special-skilled-occupational-status-group-theory is overlaid onto neoliberal economic and military-industrial-complex history to argue occupational-contractor-status-groups, with their monopoly access to early computer technology, fulfilled neoliberal doctrine by creating and protecting private markets for the Internet and exploited Communist threat rational to help clear the privatization path of people who might impede market plans.
    Keywords: Internet, neoliberal, DARPA, Communist Threat, Cold War, national security
    JEL: A14 H56 O33
    Date: 2019–07
  5. By: Lindquist, Matthew J. (SOFI, Stockholm University); Zenou, Yves (Monash University)
    Abstract: Social network analysis can help us understand more about the root causes of delinquent behavior and crime and provide practical guidance for the design of crime prevention policies. To illustrate these points, we first present a selective review of several key studies and findings from the criminology and police studies literature. We then turn to a presentation of recent contributions made by network economists. We highlight 10 policy lessons and provide a discussion of recent developments in the use of big data and computer technology.
    Keywords: co-offending, crime, criminal networks, social networks, peer effects, key player
    JEL: A14 K42 Z13
    Date: 2019–08
  6. By: Monwipa Wongrujira (Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University)
    Abstract: Technology and mobile devices allow many news consumers become news senders?prosumer (i.e. being both consumers and producers of news and information at the same time). Anyone could be a reporter. Also, there are tons of news and information flow around us every day. The differences between media reporting stories and information running around social media are the quality of news and information. If the media do only report ?who what when where why how,? they did not accomplish their task as a journalist. Data-driven journalism becomes significant in news reporting process. It needs not merely Big Data, but also analysis process and presentation. This paper intends to explore the use of data journalism among the mass media in Thailand. Whereas social media become more and more popular and drawing attention among Thai news consumers, the professional media need to differentiate their news reporting to focus on in-depth or investigative reporting. How the professional media apply data-driven journalism; to what extend did they use data for reporting a story; and what are the obstacles affecting their application of data journalism. Factors affecting the use of data-driven journalism included: data sources (incomplete, unstructured, and difficult to access), data compiling, time consuming and limitation of technology for data analysis and presentation.
    Keywords: Data journalism, professionalism, news reporting, mass media, social media, Thailand
    Date: 2019–07
  7. By: KITALA CHRISTIAN MALAMSHA (Moshi Co operative University)
    Abstract: Adoption of mobile banking services by mobile phone owners in terms of level of adoption and usefulness of adoption remained inadequate in Tanzania. Such inadequacy of adoption is a result of utilizing traditional banking services by mobile phone owners which decreases advantage of using mobile banking technology. Mobile banking is a situation whereby the customer interacts with a bank via mobile device, an electronic banking system which allows bank customers to get access to their bank accounts via mobile phone. The establishment of adoption level, the factors influencing adoption and usefulness of mobile banking technology among mobile phone owners remains silent. That was a knowledge gap on which the research for this paper focused. The article is intended to assess adoption of mobile banking services by mobile phone owners in Moshi municipality, Tanzania. The specific objectives were to evaluate the level of adoption of mobile banking, analyse factors influencing adoption of mobile banking and evaluate usefulness of mobile banking services. Primary data were collected using questionnaires. They were administered to 182 mobile phone owners who are bank customers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The adoption level of mobile baking was revealed to be inadequate. The main factors found to be behind non-adoption of mobile banking service was risk of loss and fear of system failure which was found to negatively affect adoption of mobile banking service. The risks found to have the greatest influence were fear of sending money to wrong account or phone number and loss of personal or account information. Perceived convenience was found to positively affect adoption of mobile banking. The usefulness established included; accessibility, saving of time and comfort mostly used to pay bills and funds transfer. It therefore concluded that adoption of mobile banking is inadequate and is affected negatively by risk of loss and fear while affected positively by perceived convenience and mobile banking is useful in various ways. It is argued that mobile banking should be adopted by banks and mobile phone owners in Tanzania.
    Keywords: Adoption, Mobile phone owners, Mobile banking services, Factors, Usefulness, Moshi Tanzania
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2019–07
  8. By: Andrea Potgieter (University of Johannesburg); Chris Rensleigh (University of Johannesburg)
    Abstract: A mobile application's (app) popularity and influence is determined by its users.These users download, use, review and support an app based on a myriad of requirements and needs. The aim of this paper is to showcase the results from asynchronous online interviews, which was focused on exploring the needs of potential users of a mobile blood donation app in South Africa.This paper specifically reports on the results of the 89 interviews conducted with existing and potential blood donors in South Africa during late 2017 and early 2018. As part of a larger, exploratory sequential mixed method research project, the interview schedule described in this paper was guided by the Leximancer analyses of app store reviews of existing blood donation apps, and the results from the interview informed a quantitative questionnaire. The results of the interviews, garnered from a Leximancer analyses, showed that the potential convenience afforded to blood donors by a blood donation app was important ? aspects such as reminders to donateand GPS functionality for finding blood donation events, among others, were mentioned as preferred features by respondents.Furthermore, several respondents noted that a question and answer feature with the blood donation organisation would be a value adding feature in an app of this kind.
    Keywords: Mobile app features; blood donation; Leximancer
    JEL: L31 L86 D83
    Date: 2019–07
  9. By: Siriwan Anantho (Center for Communication Policy Study)
    Abstract: Media management is a multidisciplinary approach that requires various kinds of knowledge including media studies, management, economics, politics and social science. The increasing development of communication technology has seriously affected people?s lifestyle and consumers? behavior. Government policies and guidelines have been revised to keep up with changing environment of media industry. Media managers and operators need to adjust themselves and look for new strategies to survive in high competitive market. The educational institutions also inevitably need to adapt themselves in order to cope with the new social context and market demand. This researcher conducted a descriptive study on media management research published from 2008 to 2017. The research objectives were to synthesize significant themes, theoretical concepts, and research methods in the area of media management. The research explored international database of thesis/dissertation, as well as international academic articles on media management. Using mixed methods approach, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. The results of the research showed that the topics related to media management appeared more in doctoral dissertation than in master?s theses. Additionally more media management articles were published in Journal of Media Business Studies (JOMBS) than other journals included in the study. The type of media most found in theses/dissertation database were new media, television and newspaper respectively, while television and newspaper were most found in articles published in selected journals. News was the most important area of media management study in both theses/dissertation database and academic journals. During 10 years time frame, most media management research used qualitative method, followed by quantitative and mixed methods respectively, and the theories employed were diverse and often integrated. Most research was conducted in the United States, only a few were from other countries, such as China, UK, India, Canada, France etc. The results of this study might be useful for media professionals and academics for future analysis and planning in media management.
    Keywords: media management, descriptive analysis, mixed method.
    Date: 2019–07
  10. By: Michels, Marius; Bonke, Vanessa; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Abstract: Recent years have been marked by a steady increase in decision support tools available for farmers. Likewise, the number of dairy herd management smartphone apps to support on-farm decision making has increased. The existing literature does not yet cover topics concerning the adoption of herd management smartphone apps or which specific functions of such apps are perceived as useful by dairy farmers. Thus, this study tries to close this research gap by providing results about the adoption and use of dairy herd management smartphone apps derived from an online survey conducted in 2018 with 280 German dairy farmers. Dairy farmers rate functions related to the observation of animal health, reproduction management and data gathering as most useful. By rating functions and not specific smartphone apps, the results are also of interest for dairy sectors and developers outside Germany. Our results show that in our sample 91% of the dairy farmers use a smartphone and 61% already use a herd management smartphone app. Moreover, 38% of the adopters use such an app on a daily basis. Technology adoption cannot solely be explained by economic reasoning, but also the beliefs about a technology play a crucial role in decision making. Thus, this study also sought to determine whether an extended Technology Acceptance Model could explain adoption and use of herd management smartphone apps applying partial least squares structural equation modelling. All hypotheses of the Technology Acceptance Model could be verified by this study. The key attitudinal components of the model are perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, which both positively influence the intention to use herd management smartphone apps; this ultimately has a positive effect on the actual usage behavior. All in all, our model explained 33% of the variance in the actual use of herd management apps by German dairy farmers.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–08–26

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