nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2019‒09‒02
thirteen papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. The Effects of Internet Book Piracy: Case of Comics By Tatsuo Tanaka
  2. Going Mobile: The Effects of Smartphone Usage on Internet Consumption By Luis Aguiar Wicht
  3. The impact of ICT capital and use on economic growth By Sedika, Wesam M.; Emamb, Waleed
  4. Access to Electricity and ICT Usage: A Country-level Assessment on Sub-Saharan Africa By Houngbonon, Georges V.; Le Quentrec, Erwan
  5. Determinants of Mobile Broadband Use in Developing Economies: Evidence from Nigeria By Hasbi, Maude; Dubus, Antoine
  6. FDI in the digital economy: a shift to asset-light international footprints By CASELLA, BRUNO; FORMENTI, LORENZO
  7. Challenges and Opportunities in the Future Applications of IoT Technology By Attia, Tarek M.
  8. Back to the Future - Changing Job Profiles in the Digital Age By Stephany, Fabian; Lorenz, Hanno
  9. Productivity, Network Effects and Telecommunications Capital: Evidence from the US and Europe By Edquist, Harald; Goodridge, Peter; Haskel, Jonathan
  10. Effects of customer’s ICT investment and quality control activities on ICT investment decision and data sharing and usage along production networks in Southeast Asia By Ueki, Yasushi; Tsuji, Masatsugu
  11. Building World-Class Universities : Some Insights & Predictions By Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
  12. Who Is Afraid of Machines? By Blanas, Sotiris; Gancia, Gino; Lee, Sang Yoon (Tim)
  13. Motivation for TV white space: An explorative study on Africa for achieving the rural broadband gap By Oliver, Miquel; Majumder, Sudip

  1. By: Tatsuo Tanaka (Faculty of Economics, Keio University)
    Abstract: In this study, the effects of internet book piracy in the case of the Japanese comic book market were examined using direct measurement of product level piracy ratio and a massive deletion project as a natural experiment. Total effect of the piracy is negative to the legitimate sales, but panel regression and difference-in-difference analysis consistently indicated that the effect of piracy is heterogeneous: piracy decreased the legitimate sales of ongoing comics, whereas increased the legitimate sales of completed comics. The latter result is interpreted as follows: piracy reminds consumers of past comics and stimulates sales in that market.
    Keywords: copyright, comic, piracy, Internet, DID
    JEL: D12 L82 M3 O34
    Date: 2019–08–08
  2. By: Luis Aguiar Wicht (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: With relatively small screens and limited display, smartphones significantly affect users' online browsing experience relative to fixed devices like the desktop. As consumers increasingly access the Internet through mobile devices, this paper explores the effects of a shift towards smartphone Internet access on the consumption of online content. Using data on the clickstream activity of over 2,900 individuals on both their smartphone and desktop, I estimate the effect of smartphone usage on users' allocation of time across various categories of websites, as well as their diversity and depth of online content consumption. Employing an instrumental variables approach based on updates of the smartphone operating system, the results show an increase in the usage of game and social networking domains at the expense of news and shopping domains - among others - as mobile usage increases relative to desktop. I also find that the diversity of consumption decreases within several categories, whereas consumption depth increases for games and social networking categories and decreases for search and news domains. Results show limited differences across consumer demographics. These results have important implications for website publishers, advertisers, and online competition.
    Keywords: Internet consumption, smartphones
    Date: 2019–08
  3. By: Sedika, Wesam M.; Emamb, Waleed
    Abstract: This paper investigates how ICT capital and usage affects economic growth which is currently received considerable attention in the information society and its potential impacts on the economic growth. A sample of MENA and OECD countries including developing, emerging, and developed countries is used in this study to determine the impact of ICT on economic growth during the last 15 years using panel data analysis. This research provides statistical evidence for the impact of labor and capital on economic growth as reported in several previous studies. However, this impact differ between regions and level of development. It is observed that the impact of ICT on economic growth for OECD, emerging and advanced economies is higher than its impact in MENA and developing countries. This is contradicting to the impact of non-ICT capital where the impact of non-ICT capital on economic growth for OECD and advanced economies is much smaller than its value for MENA and developing countries. In addition, both mobile service and fixed broadband service as a measures for ICT usage show positive and significant impact on economic growth. This impact appears in OECD countries and advanced economies only but not appears in MENA countries and developing economies.
    Keywords: ICT,economic growth,panel data analysis
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Houngbonon, Georges V.; Le Quentrec, Erwan
    Abstract: While several determinants of ICT usage has been investigated in the literature, the impact of access to electricity has been so far overlooked. In this paper, we rely on countrylevel data on the penetration rates of mobile telephony, Internet and smartphones, as well as average revenue per user (ARPU) to evaluate the impact of access to electricity on ICT usage in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using a panel of 40 countries from 2000 to 2016 and a logistic diffusion model, we find a positive and statistically significant impact of access to electricity on the penetration rate of the Internet and smartphones, but no significant effect on the diffusion of basic mobile telephony. Accounting for both the extensive and intensive margins, we find that ICT usage increases by 0.43 US dollar per connected user, meaning that mobile ARPU would have declined by 0.1 percentage point more per year without the expansion of access to electricity. These findings are robust to the measurement of access to electricity, and to the inclusion of controls for income, education, urbanization, price, competition and network investment.
    Keywords: Electricity,ICT,Africa
    JEL: L94 L96
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Hasbi, Maude; Dubus, Antoine
    Abstract: Using micro-level data coming from household surveys over 5 years, from 2013 to 2017, we analyse what are the determinants of mobile broadband adoption in developing economies. We provide empirical evidence on the presence of a learning effect stemming from mobile money use, which by providing a higher experience in using mobile phone increases mobile broadband use. The ownership of a mobile phone is also positively correlated with mobile broadband use. However, for those not owning a mobile phone the ownership of an active SIM card is a prerequisite for using mobile broadband. We highlight that the population left behind is mainly composed of poor households living in rural areas.
    Keywords: Mobile Broadband Use,Developing Economy,Inequality,Economic Growth
    JEL: I30 O12 L50 L96 O55
    Date: 2019
    Abstract: The digital economy is becoming an ever more important part of the world economy. It is revolutionizing the way we do business, and it has important implications for foreign direct investment (FDI). However, little systematic analysis has been done to investigate the investment patterns of digital multinational enterprises (MNEs). This study, conducted in the context of UNCTAD’s World Investment Report 2017 (WIR17), is an attempt to fill some of the gap in knowledge and to provide an impetus for future research. It proposes a new interpretative framework for the digital economy, builds an extensive sample of digital and ICT MNEs, and profiles their international operations. Its main findings are that MNEs in highly digitalized industries have a “lighter” FDI footprint than traditional MNEs; they tend to concentrate their operations in a few highly developed countries and their investment patterns are shaped by fiscal and financial motives more than those of traditional MNEs. As digital technologies and business models tend to disseminate across the broader economy, this may suggest the onset of a new era of international production and MNE internationalization paths. This paper sheds light on the methodology underpinning the analysis in WIR17 to ensure full replicability and to prepare the ground for further work in the area. It also builds further on the discussion in WIR17, proposing broader implications for international business and new avenues for future research.
    Keywords: FDI, digital economy, multinational enterprises, ICT
    JEL: F21 F23
    Date: 2018–04–30
  7. By: Attia, Tarek M.
    Abstract: The advent of internet of things (IoT) has influenced and revolutionized the information systems and computing technologies. A computing concept where physical objects used in daily life, will identify themselves by getting connected to the internet is called IoT. Physical objects embedded with electronic, radio-frequency identification, software, sensors, actuators and smart objects converge with the internet to accumulate and share data in IoT. IoT is expected to bring in extreme changes and solutions to most of the daily problems in the real world. Thus, IoT provides connectivity for everyone and everything at any time. The IoT embeds some intelligence in Internet connected objects to communicate, exchange information, take decisions, invoke actions and provide amazing services. It has an imperative economic and societal impact for the future construction of information, network, and communication technology. In the upcoming years, the IoT is expected to bridge various technologies to enable new applications by connecting physical objects together to support the intelligent decision making. As the most cost-effective and performant source of positioning and timing information in outdoor environments, the global navigation satellite systems(GNSS) has become an essential element of major contemporary technology developments notably including the IoT, Big Data, Smart Cities and Multimodal Logistics. By 2020, there will be more than 20 billion interconnected IoT devices, and its market size may reach $1.5 trillion. Projections for the impact of IoT on the Internet and economy are impressive, with some anticipating as many as 100 billion connected IoT devices and a global economic impact of more than $11 trillion by 2025. Regulators can play a role in encouraging the development and adoption of the IoT, by preventing abuse of market dominance, protecting users and protecting Internet networks while promoting efficient markets and the public interest. Regulators can consider and identify some measures to foster development of the IoT. Encourage development of LTE‐A and 5G wireless networks, and keep need for IoT‐specific spectrum under review. Universal IPv6 adoption by governments in their own services and procurements, and other incentives for private sector adoption. Increasing interoperability through competition law and give users a right to easy access to personal data. Support global standardization and deployment of remotely provisioned SIMs for greater machine to machine competition. Particular attention will be needed from regulators to IoT privacy and security issues, which are key to encouraging public trust in and adoption of the technology. This paper focuses specifically on the essential technologies that enable the implementation of IoT and the general layered architecture of IoT, the market of IoT and GNSS technologies and their impact of the world economy, application domain of IoT and finally the Policy and regulatory implications and best practices.
    Keywords: Internet of Things(IoT),Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS),Applications,Marketing,Policy and Regulation
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Stephany, Fabian; Lorenz, Hanno
    Abstract: The uniqueness of human labour is at question in times of smart technologies. The 250 years-old discussion on technological unemployment reawakens. Frey and Osborne (2013) estimate that half of US employment will be automated by algorithms within the next 20 years. Other follow-up studies conclude that only a small fraction of workers will be replaced by digital technologies. The main contribution of our work is to show that the diversity of previous findings regarding the degree of job automation is, to a large extent, driven by model selection and not by controlling for personal characteristics or tasks. For our case study, we consult Austrian experts in machine learning and industry professionals on the susceptibility to digital technologies in the Austrian labour market. Our results indicate that, while clerical computer-based routine jobs are likely to change in the next decade, professional activities, such as the processing of complex information, are less prone to digital change.
    Keywords: Classification,Employment,GLM,Technological Change
    JEL: E24 J24 J31 J62 O33
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Edquist, Harald; Goodridge, Peter; Haskel, Jonathan
    Abstract: Did the huge investment in telecommunications networks in the 1990s affect subsequent total factor productivity? Using data from 13 European countries and the US, 1995-2013, we document the substan- tial growth and then slowdown in "telecommunications" capital and ask if this is related to the growth and slowdown in TFP. We explore this by disaggregating ICT equipment investment into "IT" and "CT" equipment investment. We test for distinct effects from each using a simple framework where CT cap- ital has network externalities and so potentially impacts TFP, with the marginal impact of CT capital growth being higher in countries spending more on renting CT capital. We find: a) evidence of a robust correlation between (lagged) growth in (rental share-weighted) CT capital services and TFP growth; b) the estimated externality from CT capital potentially explains around 30-40% of TFP growth in North European countries, 60% in Scandinavia and around 90% in the US; c) CT capital has a social return around five times its private return; and d) a slowdown in the accumulation of CT capital accounts for just over half of the post-2003 TFP slowdown in the US but only one-tenth of the TFP slowdown in the EU
    Date: 2019–08
  10. By: Ueki, Yasushi; Tsuji, Masatsugu
    Abstract: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) generate externalities. A firm adopted an ICT will encourage its partner firms to adopt the compatible ICT to benefit fully from its own ICT investment. Thus, the firm and its partner firms who are collaborative and willing to adopt ICTs are like to transform their collaborations into digital based. Because small group activities for continuous improvement will develop organizational routines for information sharing within and between firms, firms promoting such activities are like to adopt ICTs. This study examines these hypotheses by using a survey data collected in Lao PDR, Thailand, and Vietnam in 2017. Results of two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimations present (1) significant relationships of customer's ICT investments and quality control circle with own ICT investment decision or planning and (2) significant relationships of the adoption of ICTs with data sharing within and between firms and effective data use. The findings suggest that (1) benefits from ICTs can be diffused along production networks even if firms reactively adopt ICTs and (2) policies for promoting ICT adoption, in tandem with quality management will improve the operation of entire production networks.
    Keywords: Information and communication technology (ICT),management information system (MIS),network effect,two-stage least squared,Southeast Asia
    Date: 2019
  11. By: Aithal, Sreeramana; Aithal, Shubhrajyotsna
    Abstract: Innovations in higher education model are finding importance than ever before due to enhanced higher education institutions and the advancement in technology adopted mass education opportunities. After privatization of higher education, there is an enhanced competition between universities to attract students globally. Universities are competing with each other in terms of their physical and intellectual assets. It is postulated that the six essential assets to be developed by a university based on our predictive analysis for the growth and prosper as world-class university are (1) Physical infrastructure, (2) Digital infrastructure, (3) Innovative academic & training Infrastructure for confidence building, (4) Intellectual property infrastructure, (5) Emotional infrastructure, and (6) Networked infrastructure. In this paper, we have determined the primary focus of these infrastructures along with their essential objectives in detail. We have also discussed the various generic strategies to be followed to develop such infrastructures along the lifecycle of the university including Survival, Sustainability, Differentiation, and Growth & prosperity are analysed. The necessary and sufficient conditions of developing such infrastructures using all the above strategies towards building World-class universities are identified. It is estimated that Physical, Digital, and Innovative Academic infrastructures are necessary conditions and Intellectual Property, Emotional, and Network infrastructures are sufficient conditions respectively.
    Keywords: World-class universities, Essential assets, Physical infrastructure, Digital infrastructure, Academic & training Infrastructure, Intellectual property infrastructure, Emotional infrastructure, Networked infrastructure.
    JEL: I21 I23 M19
    Date: 2019–07–01
  12. By: Blanas, Sotiris; Gancia, Gino; Lee, Sang Yoon (Tim)
    Abstract: We study how various types of machines, namely, information and communication technologies, software, and especially industrial robots, affect the demand for workers of different education, age, and gender. We do so by exploiting differences in the composition of workers across countries, industries and time. Our dataset comprises 10 high-income countries and 30 industries, which span roughly their entire economies, with annual observations over the period 1982-2005. The results suggest that software and robots reduced the demand for low and medium-skill workers, the young, and women - especially in manufacturing industries; but raised the demand for high-skill workers, older workers and men - especially in service industries. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that automation technologies, contrary to other types of capital, replace humans performing routine tasks. We also find evidence for some types of workers, especially women, having shifted away from such tasks.
    Keywords: automation; employment; labor demand; Labor Income Share; robots
    JEL: J21 J23 O33
    Date: 2019–06
  13. By: Oliver, Miquel; Majumder, Sudip
    Abstract: Emergence of digital broadcasting is the key index of the new horizons of communication and media environment. In this paper we will discuss how TVWS, the resultant of digital switchover is approaching for becoming a financially rewarding solution in terms of rural areas than the other cellular technologies i.e 3G and 4G or even for upcoming 5G. We will analyze the standpoint of digital switchover around the globe and will try to the look at the white space capacity. There has been several TVWS pilot testing all over the world, specially in Africa region and we will try to evaluate their inclusive performance as they match the needs to deploy mobile broadband in rural and low-density areas. After shortly presenting the case, we will try to measure the potential of TVWS technology in terms of the other regions around the world which share the same teletraffic profile and socio-economic condition. Also we will try to present the importance of regulatory issues with ICT strategies and market development with propos
    Date: 2019

This nep-ict issue is ©2019 by Marek Giebel. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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