nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2019‒04‒29
six papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. The Advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Economic Development: A Panel Analysis By Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad
  2. Marketing agencies and collusive bidding in online ad auctions By Francesco Decarolis; Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta
  3. ICT Capital-Skill Complementarity and Wage Inequality: Evidence from Fourteen OECD Countries By Hiroya Taniguchi; Ken Yamada
  4. FDI Patterns and Global Value Chains in the Digital Economy By Antonello Zanfei; Andrea Coveri; Mario Pianta
  5. Digitalisierung und Weiterbildung - Industrie 4.0 versus Dienstleistung 4.0 By Seyda, Susanne
  6. Stars in social media: New light through old windows? By Gaenssle, Sophia; Budzinski, Oliver

  1. By: Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad
    Abstract: This study analyses the impact of advancement in information and communication technologies (ICT) on economic development over the period of 2000 to 2017 in the case of 87 developed and developing countries. The developed and developing countries are selected following the ranking of International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018. This article uses three types of analysis: the first is based on the whole sample, and for comparative analysis developed and developing countries’ analysis are done separately. The results of panel least squares reveal that advancement in information and communication technologies has an insignificant relationship with economic development, whereas the advancement in information and communication technologies is playing a positive and significant role in the economic development of developing countries. This shows that developed countries are getting more benefits from advancement in information and communication technologies in comparison with developing countries in the process of economic development. The developed countries have a more stable macroeconomic environment in comparison with developing countries, so macroeconomic stability is playing more significant role in the case of developed countries. If developing countries want to achieve higher economic development, they must increase trade and physical capital with stable macroeconomic environment. Moreover, developing countries should adopt advancement in information and communication technologies (ICT) to compete with developed countries in the process of economic development.
    Keywords: ICT, economic development, macroeconomic stability
    JEL: E31 L86 O1
    Date: 2019–03
  2. By: Francesco Decarolis; Maris Goldmanis; Antonio Penta
    Abstract: The transition of the advertising market from traditional media to the internet has induced a proliferation of marketing agencies specialized in bidding in the auctions that are used to sell ad space on the web. We analyze how collusive bidding can emerge from bid delegation to a common marketing agency and how this can undermine the revenues and allocative efficiency of both the Generalized Second Price auction (GSP, used by Google and Microsoft-Bing and Yahoo!) and the of VCG mechanism (used by Facebook). We find that, despite its well-known susceptibility to collusion, the VCG mechanism outperforms the GSP auction both in terms of revenues and efficiency.
    Keywords: Collusion, digital marketing agencies, facebook, google, GSP, internet auctions, online advertising, VCG
    JEL: C72 D44 L81
    Date: 2019–04
  3. By: Hiroya Taniguchi; Ken Yamada
    Abstract: Abstract Although it is well known that wage inequality has evolved over recent decades, it is not known the extent to which the evolution of wage inequality is attributed to observed factors such as capital and labor quantities or unobserved factors such as labor-augmenting technology in many countries. To examine this issue, we use cross-country panel data from 14 OECD countries for the years 1970 to 2005 and estimate the aggregate production function extended to allow for capital-skill complementarity and skill-biased technological change. Our results point to a strong influence of the observed expansion of ICT capital equipment around the world.
    Date: 2019–04
  4. By: Antonello Zanfei (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Universit? di Urbino Carlo Bo); Andrea Coveri (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Universit? di Urbino Carlo Bo); Mario Pianta (Scuola Normale Superiore, Florence)
    Abstract: The modern process of digitalization of the world economy entails global flows of investment in technology-based industries and knowledge activities located upstream of value chains. This work exploits the wealth of information offered by the fDi Markets database to provide an overview about the geographical patterns of FDIs and of specialization in digital industries and in technological activities.We showremarkable differences across both advanced and emerging economies in this respect. Europe is both a big attractor and a big investor in digital related business, but relies on emerging economies more to offshore production than to set up R&D labs in these countries. By contrast, North American economies are more prone to engage in knowledge intensive FDIs towards the most dynamic emerging countries than is the case of Europe.Emerging economies also play a large variety of rolesinglobal flows of investment in digital industries.However, with the relevant exceptions of China, India and the Four Asian Tigers, inward and outward FDIsof Emerging economies are predominantlyproduction-oriented, with a lower involvement in R&D, Design and ICT activities. Hence, the observed patterns of FDIs appear to consolidate existing hierarchies in digital related global production networks, creating limited upgrading opportunities in the case of most emerging economies.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment, globalization, digitalization, global value chains.
    JEL: F12 F21 F23 L23 M21 O30
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Seyda, Susanne
    Abstract: Dienstleistungsunternehmen nutzen mehr neue digitale Technologien als das Verarbeitende Gewerbe, wie beispielsweise digitale Vertriebswege und digitale Dienstleistungen. Unternehmensnahe Dienstleister nutzen im Schnitt 2,4 von acht abgefragten neuen digitalen Technologien, gesellschaftsnahe Dienstleister 2,3 und Unternehmen des Verarbeitenden Gewerbes nur 2,1. Im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe sind vor allem die kleinen Unternehmen wenig digitalisiert, während die großen Unternehmen zu den Vorreitern zählen. Digitale Technologien sind Treiber der Weiterbildung. Unternehmen, die viele digitale Technologien nutzen, sind häufiger weiterbildungsaktiv und wenden mehr Geld und Zeit für die Weiterbildung ihrer Mitarbeiter auf. Da technologiegetriebene Weiterbildung in der Industrie eine längere Tradition hat als im Dienstleistungsbereich, lösen neue Technologien einen weniger sprunghaften Weiterbildungsbedarf aus. Chancen der Digitalisierung werden erkannt. In allen Wirtschaftsbereichen werden mehr Chancen als Risiken in der Digitalisierung gesehen. Unternehmensnahe Dienstleister sehen die größten Chancen in der Digitalisierung; die geringsten sehen Industrieunternehmen. Inhalte der Weiterbildung werden durch die Digitalisierung vielfältiger und beschränken sich nicht nur auf IT-Kenntnisse. Berufliches Fachwissen bleibt der wichtigste Weiterbildungsinhalt. Soft Skills wie Kommunikations- und Kooperationsfähigkeit sowie Selbstständigkeit, Planungs- und Organisationsfähigkeit gewinnen im Rahmen der Digitalisierung an Bedeutung. Branchen- und unternehmensspezifische Besonderheiten sollten bei der Bereitstellung von Lernangeboten berücksichtigt werden. Führungskompetenzen gewinnen in allen Branchen an Bedeutung, um Führungskräfte für "Digital Leadership" zu qualifizieren. IT-Kenntnisse werden vor allem bei den unternehmensnahen Dienstleistern in Weiterbildung vermittelt. IT-Anwender- und IT-Fachkenntnisse werden im Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und bei den gesellschaftsnahen Dienstleistern vergleichsweise selten vermittelt, auch weil die Nutzung mobiler sowie stationärer Geräte dort eine geringere Verbreitung hat als bei den unternehmensnahen Dienstleistern. Ein digitales Mindset erhöht die Bereitschaft, sich digital weiterzubilden. Wenn im Unterneh-men ein digitales Mindset vorhanden ist, das sich darin äußert, dass die Unternehmen große Chancen in der Digitalisierung sehen, dann werden auch häufiger digitale Weiterbildungsangebote genutzt. Kleine Unternehmen des Verarbeitenden Gewerbes nutzen am seltensten digitale Lernangebote, während große Industrieunternehmen zu den Vorreitern der Nutzung von E-Learning zählen. Didaktische Potenziale stärker nutzen. Während die hohe Flexibilität digitaler Lernangebote von vielen Unternehmen geschätzt wird, sehen relativ wenig Unternehmen didaktische Vorteile bei der Nutzung neuer Medien in der Weiterbildung - hier besteht noch Handlungsbedarf, sowohl hinsichtlich der Erkenntnis, was digitale Medien können, aber auch hinsichtlich des Wissens über die Qualität der Angebote.
    JEL: J24 M53 O33
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Gaenssle, Sophia; Budzinski, Oliver
    Abstract: We review the economics of superstars, originally developed for stars in traditional media, and discuss whether they are applicable for the (allegedly) novel phenomenon of stars in social media (influencer, micro-celebrities). Moreover, we analyse potentially new factors for creating social media superstardom that may be special to the nature of social media. Our overall result is that the economics of superstars, like the role of talent, market concentration effects, MacDonald-style and Adler-style effects, remain applicable and relevant for social media stars. In line with this assessment, we find that several (allegedly) new star factors in social media, like user-generated content, prosumption, disappearance of gatekeepers and authenticity, turn out to be only partly applicable or just slightly different to traditional concepts. However, algorithm management and upload strategies represent novel success factors relevant for social media superstardom that are not captured by traditional superstar theories.
    Keywords: social media,digital media,popularity,superstars,cultural economics,media economics,influencer,micro-celebrities,creators,user-generated content,prosumer,algorithm management,YouTube,Instagram,entertainment markets
    JEL: L82 Z10 L13 L15 L86 D43 D83 F23 M21 D91 L26
    Date: 2019

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