nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2019‒03‒04
seven papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. How Enhancing Information and Communication Technology has affected Inequality in Africa for Sustainable Development: An Empirical Investigation By Asongu, Simplice; Odhiambo, Nicholas
  3. Do Information and Communication Technologies Empower Female Workers? Firm-Level Evidence from Viet Nam By Chun, Natalie; Tang, Heiwai
  4. Identifying leadership skills required in the digital age By Klus, Milan F.; Müller, Julia
  5. Prior Experience, Trust, IS Success Model: A Study on the Use of Tax e-Filing in Indonesia By Christine Tjen; Vitria Indriani; Panggah Tri Wicaksono
  6. Different Types of IT Skills in Occupational Training Curricula and Labor Market Outcomes By Fabienne Kiener; Ann-Sophie Gnehm; Simon Clematide; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  7. Data Science for Entrepreneurship Research : Studying Demand Dynamics for Entrepreneurial Skills in the Netherlands By Prüfer, Jens; Prüfer, Patricia

  1. By: Asongu, Simplice; Odhiambo, Nicholas
    Abstract: This study examines if enhancing ICT reduces inequality in 48 countries in Africa for the period 2004-2014. Three inequality indictors are used, namely, the: Gini coefficient, Atkinson index and Palma ratio. The adopted ICT indicators include: mobile phone penetration, internet penetration and fixed broadband subscriptions. The empirical evidence is based on the Generalised Method of Moments. Enhancing internet penetration and fixed broadband subscriptions have a net effect on reducing the Gini coefficient and the Atkinson index, whereas increasing mobile phone penetration and internet penetration reduces the Palma ratio. Policy implications are discussed in the light of challenges to Sustainable Development Goals.
    Keywords: ICT; Inclusive development; Africa; Sustainable development
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 O55
    Date: 2018–09
  2. By: Maria Tokareva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Konstantin Vishnevskiy (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Anton Zarubin (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are of particular interest for telecommunication companies that can significantly affect the interaction of economic agents. As a result of the growth in the number of connected devices, the introduction of cloud services and business applications it became possible to combine equipment, information systems and management systems into a single communication network which in turn gave impetus to the development of the Internet of Things. The basis for the development of the Internet of Things is modern data transmission technologies including IoT Wireless Networks. There are, currently, a number of wireless IoT technologies which have different characteristics. In this regard, it is of interest to identify the most promising technologies that will form the basis of the infrastructure for the development of the IoT ecosystem. This paper develops an assessment model for the application potential of IoT wireless network technologies for the telecommunication sector. LPWAN, 4G and Wi-Fi were identified as the most promising technologies. The majority of the assessment criteria are applicable to other telecommunication technologies.
    Keywords: technology assessment, technology management, Internet of Things, wireless networks, telecommunication companies, decision model, digital platforms.
    JEL: C43 L15 L96 O14
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Chun, Natalie (Asian Development Bank); Tang, Heiwai (Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of firms’ investments in information and communication technologies (ICT) on their demand for female and skilled workers. Using the gradual liberalization of the broadband Internet sector across provinces from 2006 to 2009 as a source of exogenous variation to identify the causal impacts of ICT, we find evidence from the country’s comprehensive enterprise survey data that firms’ adoption of broadband Internet and other related ICT increased their relative demand for female and college-educated workers. The effect of ICT on firms’ female employment is particularly strong among the college-educated workers, and is stronger in industries that are more dependent on highly manual and physical tasks. These results suggest that ICT can lower gender inequality in the labor market by shifting the labor demand from highly manual, routine tasks in which men have a comparative advantage toward more nonroutine, interactive tasks in which women hold a comparative advantage. However, the effect of ICT is weaker in industries relying more on complex and interactive tasks, suggesting that gender differences in education may have limited female labor supply for the most innovative industries that require highly technical skills to complement ICT.
    Keywords: gender inequality; ICT; information technology; infrastructure; wage inequality
    JEL: I24 J16 J21 J22
    Date: 2018–05–22
  4. By: Klus, Milan F.; Müller, Julia
    Abstract: Is leadership changing in an increasingly digitalised work environment? This question arises in corporate practice, societal debates, and in business management research. The evolution of digital technologies changes working environments considerably and creates new challenges for executives. So far, however, only little research has been conducted on how these challenges and technology-driven changes are associated with altered requirements for the skill set needed by executives. In this paper we bridge that gap by applying a three-stage research design. First, we develop a novel conceptual framework in which we categorise leadership skills and associate them with tasks, management level, and leadership experience. Building on this, we conduct semi-structured interviews with executives and systematically investigate job advertisements at the management level. Our interview results show that communication skills, subject-specific knowledge, self-organisation skills, and self-reflection skills are considered particularly relevant in times of rapid technology-driven change. Furthermore, many interview participants identify empathy and an open-mindedness towards the new as crucial personal traits. Our job advertisement analysis further reveals that executives need to be able to speak English, have IT skills, and be flexible, motivated, and stress tolerant.
    JEL: M12 M15 M51 M54 O32 O33
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Christine Tjen (Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Indonesia); Vitria Indriani (Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Indonesia); Panggah Tri Wicaksono (Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Indonesia)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to explore the perception of online tax ?ling in Indonesia using prior experience, trust, and IS (Information System) Success Model. The paper examined how the IS quality will be in?uenced by attributes such as prior experience on of?ine tax ?ling, trust in government, trust in technology, and trust in e-Filing website. Following this, the in?uence of IS quality on perceived usefulness and user satisfaction will be explored. To end the model, the paper was intended to answer question on whether the last two dimensions (perceived usefulness and user satisfaction) will have an effect on perceived net bene?t. This paper used primary data generated by distributing online questionnaire and able to get the total of 1.095 respondents, 993 of which are actively using online tax-?ling (e-?ling) and valid. The data were analyzed by the Structured Equation Model (SEM). The results suggested that trust in government and trust in technology positively affect the trust in e-Filing website, which subsequently in?uence all three IS quality dimensions. Information quality, system quality and service quality was found to be consistently and signi?cantly in?uence the perceived usefulness and user satisfaction. It was evident that tax payers in Indonesia placed the robustness and the safety features of the online system as the most important attributes that will in?uence the usefulness and satisfaction of online tax ?ling.
    Keywords: e-?ling — online tax return — IS quality — trust
    JEL: H20
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Fabienne Kiener (University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration); Ann-Sophie Gnehm (University of Zurich, Institute of Sociology); Simon Clematide (University of Zurich, Institute of Computational Linguistics); Uschi Backes-Gellner (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Due to an increasing diffusion of information technologies (IT), the labor market requires more and more so-called “IT skills”. Recent studies confirm that IT skills are relevant for individual labor market outcomes. However, so far researchers do not use a consistent definition and measure of IT skills. In our paper, we distinguish different types of IT skills that may lead to structurally different labor market out-comes like wages. To measure these different types of IT skills, we propose an innovative way of measuring skills based on training curricula of apprenticeship occupations. We use modern computational linguistics methods, i.e. a topic model-ling algorithm called Non-Negative Matrix Factorization. By doing so, we identify different types of IT skills like e.g. implementing ICT (Information and Communi-cations Technologies), developing applications, designing webpages or installing software, handling system technology, CNC (Computerized Numerical Control), CAD (Computer-Aided Design), and handling control technology. Our results show that although IT skills in general have a positive effect on wages, different types of IT skills are associated with differing labor market returns, e.g. general digital skills like ICT and developing applications relate to higher wages than technology-specific IT skills like handling system technology.
    Keywords: IT skills, information technologies, apprenticeship, training, curricula
    JEL: J24 O33
    Date: 2019–02
  7. By: Prüfer, Jens (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Prüfer, Patricia (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: The recent rise of big data and artificial intelligence (AI) is changing markets, politics, organizations, and societies. It also affects the domain of research. Supported by new statistical methods that rely on computational power and computer science --- data science methods --- we are now able to analyze data sets that can be huge, multidimensional, unstructured, and are diversely sourced. In this paper, we describe the most prominent data science methods suitable for entrepreneurship research and provide links to literature and Internet resources for self-starters. We survey how data science methods have been applied in the entrepreneurship research literature. As a showcase of data science techniques, based on a dataset of 95% of all job vacancies in the Netherlands over a 6-year period with 7.7 million data points, we provide an original analysis of the demand dynamics for entrepreneurial skills in the Netherlands. We show which entrepreneurial skills are particularly important for which type of profession. Moreover, we find that demand for both entrepreneurial and digital skills has increased for managerial positions, but not for others. We also find that entrepreneurial skills were significantly more demanded than digital skills over the entire period 2012-2017 and that the absolute importance of entrepreneurial skills has even increased more than digital skills for managers, despite the impact of datafication on the labor market. We conclude that further studies of entrepreneurial skills in the general population --- outside the domain of entrepreneurs --- is a rewarding subject for future research.
    Keywords: data science; machine learning; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial skills; big data; artificial intelligence
    JEL: L26 C50 C87 O32
    Date: 2019

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