nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2018‒12‒03
eleven papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Competition policy reform in Europe and Germany - Institutional change in the light of digitization By Budzinski, Oliver; Stöhr, Annika
  2. Public Relations Research in the Time of Big Data By Hrvoje Jakopovi?
  3. Can Facebook Ads and Email Messages Increase Fiscal Capacity? Experimental Evidence from Venezuela By Gallego, J.A.; Federico Ortega
  4. Zukunftsfaktor 5G: Eine ökonomische Perspektive By Demary, Vera; Rusche, Christian
  5. E-literacy massification challenges for rural and disadvantaged communities in South Africa By Antoinette Lombard
  6. Intergenerational digital activity: A good mixture of education and welfare By Mabrouka EL HACHANI; Christine DEVELOTTE
  7. Innovation policies in the digital age By Dominique Guellec; Caroline Paunov
  8. Internet Shopping and Buying Behavior of Clothing and accessories by young single consumer in Bangkok, Thailand By Nadhakan Shinnaranantana
  9. Forecasting Tourist Arrivals: Google Trends Meets Mixed Frequency Data By Havranek, Tomas; Zeynalov, Ayaz
  10. Knowledge and Perceptions of Open Science among Researchers—A Case Study for Colombia By Alexander Cotte Poveda; Clara Pardo Martinez
  11. Appraising the impact and role of platform models and Government as a Platform (GaaP) in UK Government public service reform: towards a Platform Assessment Framework (PAF) By Brown, A.; Fishenden, Jerry; Thompson, M.; Venters, Will

  1. By: Budzinski, Oliver; Stöhr, Annika
    Abstract: The ubiquitous process of digitization changes economic competition on markets in several ways and leads to the emergence of new business models. The increasing roles of digital platforms as well as data-driven markets represent two relevant examples. These developments challenge competition policy, which must consider the special economic characteristics of digital goods and markets. In Germany, national competition law was amended in 2017 in order to accommodate for digitization-driven changes in the economy and plans for further changes are already discussed. We review this institutional change from an economics perspective and argue that most of the reform's elements point into the right direction. However, some upcoming challenges may have been overlooked so far. Furthermore, we discuss whether European competition policy should follow the paragon of the German reform and amend its institutional framework accordingly. We find scope for reform particularly regarding data-driven markets, whereas platform economics appear to be already well-established.
    Keywords: competition policy,antitrust,industrial economics,digitization,media economics,institutional economics,industrial organization,big data,algorithms,platform economics,two-sided markets,personalized data,privacy,internet economics,consumer protection
    JEL: L40 K21 L86 L82 L81 L10 L15 D80
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Hrvoje Jakopovi? (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Political Science)
    Abstract: Public relations research has been facing many challenges in a fast-changing media environment. How to measure public relations effects? This remains the key question for many scholars and communication professionals. In the time of big data, possibilities to measure different aspects of human activities seem accessible. However, the challenge of coping with 3Vs (Volume, Velocity, Variety) of big data seems as an exhaustible effort to get a whole picture and interpret the meaning of these data. Undoubtedly, big data research represents an interdisciplinary approach. In public relations research interdisciplinarity was always present and therefore scholars and public relations professionals are in search of possible tools, designs and solutions that can help in big data analysis. The aim of this paper is to present possible research designs and solutions for public relations research concerning big data and user-generated content (UGC). As communicative practices are increasingly changing and moving on to social media platforms, focus of public relations research is also moving online. The author is examining collection, aggregation, analysis and interpretation of data obtained from various online sources that are publicly available. In terms of big data, the analysis is focused on user-generated content as a potential manifestation of public relations activities. The author is analysing UGC with real-time sentiment analysis and other available tools.
    Keywords: public relations research; big data; sentiment analysis; research design
    JEL: C88
    Date: 2018–11
  3. By: Gallego, J.A.; Federico Ortega
    Abstract: Tax compliance is an important challenge in weakly institutionalized countries, in which citizens do not trust the State and prefer to evade taxation. However, e-government strategies may improve fiscal capacity, as the transaction costs of compliance are reduced and more information from taxpayers is gathered and exploited. Can compliance be increased, and hence fiscal capacity strengthened, using online communication strategies that exploit these tools and sources of information? We perform a randomized field experiment in the capital of Venezuela, Caracas, to determine if online strategies, namely email reminders and targeted Facebook advertisements, can increase tax compliance. We vary the mechanism used to approach taxpayers to test if more direct and personalized methods, such as email messages, are more effective than general advertisement tools, such as Facebook ads. Moreover, our design allows us to test potential complementarities between these strategies thus boosting the capacity of the local government to increase compliance. We find that these strategies are cost-effective methods for increasing tax revenues, but that the effects vary across different types of taxpayers.
    Keywords: Tax compliance, Randomized controlled trial, Fiscal capacity, Online strategies
    JEL: C93 H26 H71 O12
    Date: 2018–11–21
  4. By: Demary, Vera; Rusche, Christian
    Abstract: Der Megatrend Digitalisierung erfasst immer mehr Bereiche von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Laut Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur werden beide Bereiche bald vollständig von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien durchdrungen sein. Doch diese Verbindung der analogen und digitalen Welt wird nur mit Hilfe einer geeigneten Infrastruktur gelingen. Ein Kernbestandteil ist dabei 5G. Darunter wird die "kommende Mobilfunkgeneration" verstanden (BMVI, 2017, 2). Doch 5G ist nicht bloß eine Weiterentwicklung von 4G beziehungsweise LTE, dem aktuellen Mobilfunkstandard. 5G führt gegenüber LTE zu einem wesentlich verbesserten mobilen Breitband, ermöglicht eine umfassende Maschine-Maschine-Kommunikation und auch allgemein eine zuverlässige und verzögerungsfreie Kommunikation (Fuest et al., 2018, 20). Des Weiteren geht 5G ebenfalls mit einer hohen Energieeffizienz einher (Andrews et al., 2014) und ermöglicht das sogenannte Network Slicing (Deutsche Telekom, 2018). Network Slicing beschreibt die Eigenschaft, ein Netz in verschiedene Netze aufzusplitten. Diese virtuellen Netze können sogar zu unterschiedlichen Zwecken eingesetzt werden. Zu diesen zählen beispielsweise die Echtzeit-Kommunikation mittels Video-Chat und einer hohen Datenrate oder das Internet der Dinge mittels Sensoren und einer niedrigen Datenrate. Die Aufteilung des Netzes kann zudem schnell variiert werden. (...)
    JEL: L86 L96 O31
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Antoinette Lombard (Vaal University of Technology)
    Abstract: The massification of e-literacy is a priority of the South African Government as set out in its National Development Plan (NDP) and the National e-Skills Plan (NeSPA) of 2012. Access to broadband and the internet has been identified as a critical challenge in delivering e-literacy programmes to the community?rural and/or disadvantaged?living in remote areas of inter alia the Northern Cape Province of South Africa. E-literacy (or digital literacy) is encapsulated as the basic knowledge of technology all citizens should have to participate in the knowledge economy. In 2017, a survey was conducted to gather basic data regarding the use of technology and the availability of technological resources in the respondents? environment. Each learner who enrolled for an e-literacy programme offered in the Northern Cape and Southern Gauteng region had to complete a registration form that was viewed as a questionnaire for analysis. The purpose of this paper is to identify gaps and provide recommendations from the findings of the survey to address the broadband and internet access challenge in remote areas of Northern Cape so that e-literacy programmes can be rolled out efficiently to the rural and/or disadvantaged community living there in order to deal with poverty, inequality and unemployment and contribute to having an e-literate society by 2030. A mixed-method survey was adopted in the form of a questionnaire. All learners living in the Northern Cape and Southern Gauteng who registered for an e-literacy course formed part of the non-random, purposive, convenient sample. An inductive approach was used to collect and analyse the data so that findings and conclusions could be drawn. Some of the findings include: i) More than 90% of the community in the Northern Cape do not have access to broadband and the internet, while the largest part of Southern Gauteng does have connectivity; ii) Rural and/or disadvantaged communities in the Northern Cape have less interest in (or little knowledge of) social media applications such as Facebook and Twitter due to limited access to broadband and the internet; iii) While self-paced learning is feasible in the Southern Gauteng region where access to broadband and the internet is not a problem, this is not yet a reality for the Northern Cape communities; iv) The online e-skills learning path for the communities in the Northern Cape poses a challenge due to little or no access to broadband and the internet.
    Keywords: E-skills, e-literacy, rural, disadvantaged community, internet access, broadband
    JEL: I24 I28 O38
    Date: 2018–11
  6. By: Mabrouka EL HACHANI (Université Jean Moulin Lyon3 - Laboratoire ELICO); Christine DEVELOTTE (ENS de Lyon - Laboratoire ICAR)
    Abstract: The context of this presentation is the ITAC research project[1], a scientific collaboration between the ICAR and the ELICO research teams and Lyon?s Public Library (BML). Its aim is to study the intergenerational use of digital artifacts at the BML. ITAC focuses on the relational, linguistic, and educational aspects resulting from the interactions. Our study centers on the interactions between a grandmother and her grandson discovering together the games provided on an interactive table. It is also a question of studying the way in which the grandmother transmits to her grandson the manipulative knowledge of communication with the screen. Through a methodological framework inspired by comprehensive ethology (Cosnier, 2001), the analysis will show how both participants benefit from such an activity when it is properly lead by a mediator. In terms of education, the results show that both participants enhanced their digital literacy. In terms of welfare, the senior gets involved in the digital entertainment environment at the same time as she plays with her grandson. It informs us of her degree of appropriation of digital uses. This ease of communication with the screens limits the speeches constantly highlighting the difficulties of seniors to be comfortable with these new technologies. Cosnier. J., 2001. « Entretien avec Jacques Cosnier », Communication et organisation [En ligne], 19 | 2001, mis en ligne le 27 mars 2012, consulté le 08 août 2018. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/communicationorganisation.2537 [1] page?id=44&forward-action=page&forward-c ontroller=resource&lang=en
    Keywords: Search ; learning ; information and knowledge, Communication, belief
    JEL: I00 D83 C71
    Date: 2018–11
  7. By: Dominique Guellec (OECD); Caroline Paunov (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper looks at how digitalisation is transforming innovation, and the consequent need for innovation policies to adapt. The paper shows that the digital transformation affects the economics of information and knowledge, in particular pricing and allocation. The reduced costs of producing and handling information and knowledge and the increased fluidity change innovation dynamics. Data have become a core input for innovation. Other changes include more opportunities for versioning; an acceleration in innovation, more experimentation and collaboration; servitisation; and higher risk associated with these general purpose technologies. The digital transformation also has economy-wide effects in terms of business dynamics, market structures and distribution. In view of this transformation, changes to innovation policy are required in the digital age. Innovation policies need to address data access issues; become more agile; promote open science, data sharing and co-operation among innovators; and review competition for innovation and intellectual property policy frameworks.
    Keywords: acceleration of innovation, digital innovation, digital technologies, economics of knowledge and information, innovation policy, market structures, servitisation
    JEL: L20 O31 O33
    Date: 2018–11–13
  8. By: Nadhakan Shinnaranantana (Marketing Department, Kasetsart University)
    Abstract: Nowadays clothing retailers have using multichannel of distribution, especially they are more focus on Internet shopping via website and application such as Instagram and Facebook fanpage. Because of increasing of internet usage rate of consumers. The use internet for several activities such as entertainment, searching for information, social media and also shopping. The clothing and accessories business are very fast moving industry. Their market growth are in the third rank follow food industry and department store. This study aim to explore marketing factors influencing buying behavior of young single consumer in clothing and accessories business via internet and social network. The samples of this research are young single consumer in Bangkok, Thailand by using convenience sampling and get 400 samples. Using questionnaire as an instrument and distribute via internet. The primary data was analyzed by SPSS program.The result of this research shows that the most popular product is blouses and fashion bags. The samples like to shop online because of a new trend and it provide product variety and resonable price. Moreover, online shopping provide convenience for them both time and money. Sales promotion of the shop is the most important to encourage sale volume. They shopping via Instagram and company website. Therefore, the reliability and trust of company are the most important for their decision making.The result of this research suggests that clothing and accessories companies should always maintain their product variety and up to date fashion with reasonable price. Purchase process is easily and trustworthy. Moreover, using sales promotion can booth up sale.
    Keywords: Clothing and accessories business, Internet Shopping, Buying Behavior, Young single, Bangkok Thailand
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2018–11
  9. By: Havranek, Tomas; Zeynalov, Ayaz
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the usefulness of Google Trends data in predicting monthly tourist arrivals and overnight stays in Prague during the period between January 2010 and December 2016. We offer two contributions. First, we analyze whether Google Trends provides significant forecasting improvements over models without search data. Second, we assess whether a high-frequency variable (weekly Google Trends) is more useful for accurate forecasting than a low-frequency variable (monthly tourist arrivals) using Mixed-data sampling (MIDAS). Our results stress the potential of Google Trends to offer more accurate prediction in the context of tourism: we find that Google Trends information, both two months and one week ahead of arrivals, is useful for predicting the actual number of tourist arrivals. The MIDAS forecasting model that employs weekly Google Trends data outperforms models using monthly Google Trends data and models without Google Trends data.
    Keywords: Google trends, mixed-frequency data, forecasting, tourism
    JEL: C53 L83
    Date: 2018–11–22
  10. By: Alexander Cotte Poveda; Clara Pardo Martinez
    Abstract: Open science can provide researchers diverse opportunities to collaborate, disseminate their research results, generate important impacts in the scientific community, and engage in effective and efficient science for the benefit of society. This study seeks to analyse and evaluate researchers’ knowledge of open science in Colombia using a survey to determine adequate instruments with which to improve research in the framework of open science. The aim of the study is to determine researchers’ current awareness of open science by considering demographic characteristics to analyse their attitudes, values, and information habits as well as the levels of institutionalism and social appropriation of open science. A representative sample of Colombian researchers was selected from the National Research System. An anonymous online survey consisting of 34 questions was sent to all professors and researchers at Colombian universities and research institutes. Sampling was random and stratified, which allowed for a representative sample of different categories of researchers, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for the sample design. A total of 1042 responses were received, with a 95% confidence level and a margin of error of 3%. The majority of respondents knew about open science, especially in relation to open science tools (software, repositories, and networks) and open data. Researchers consider open science to be positively impacted by factors such as the rise of digital technologies, the search for new forms of collaboration, the greater availability of open data and information, and public demand for better and more effective science. In contrast, a lack of resources to develop research activities within the open science approach and the limited integration between traditional and open science are identified as the most important barriers to its use in research. These results are important for building adequate open science policy in Colombia.
    JEL: O30 O32 O33
    Date: 2018–11–21
  11. By: Brown, A.; Fishenden, Jerry; Thompson, M.; Venters, Will
    Abstract: The concept of “Government as a Platform” (GaaP) (O’Reilly 2009) is coined frequently, but interpreted inconsistently: views of GaaP as being solely about technology and the building of technical components ignore GaaP’s radical and disruptive embrace of a new economic and organisational model with the potential to improve the way Government operates – helping resolve the binary political debate about centralised versus localised models of public service delivery. We offer a structured approach to the application of the platforms that underpin GaaP, encompassing not only their technical architecture, but also the other essential aspects of market dynamics and organisational form. Based on a review of information systems platforms literature, we develop a Platform Appraisal Framework (PAF) incorporating the various dimensions that characterise business models based on digital platforms. We propose this PAF as a general contribution to the strategy and audit of platform initiatives and more specifically as an assessment framework to provide consistency of thinking in GaaP initiatives. We demonstrate the utility of our PAF by applying it to UK Government platform initiatives over two distinct periods, 1999-2010 and 2010 to the present day, drawing practical conclusions concerning implementation of platforms within the unique and complex environment of the public sector.
    Keywords: platform; ecosystem; government as a platform; GaaP; digital government
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2017–05–18

This nep-ict issue is ©2018 by Walter Frisch. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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