nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2018‒10‒29
five papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Privacy as a Key Factor of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Development in Health Care By Ma?gorzata Skórzewska-Amberg; Ewa Kwiatkowska
  2. EU regions and the upgrading for the digital age By Antonio Vezzani; Emanuele Pugliese; Petros Gkotsis
  3. On a New Digital Electrotherapy Equipment with Microcontrollers and Complex Programmable Logic Device By VAN THU BUI; THI HIEU NGUYEN; MINH DUC LE
  4. Data, measurement and initiatives for inclusive digitalization and future of work By Nofal, María B.; Coremberg, Ariel; Sartorio, Luca
  5. Breaking Audio Captchas for IRCTC Booking Automization By Nipun Bansal; Mukul Sachdeva; Tanisha Mittal

  1. By: Ma?gorzata Skórzewska-Amberg (Kozminski University); Ewa Kwiatkowska (Kozminski University)
    Abstract: The transfer of a large part of activities to the cyberspace has made the society heavily depended on ICT. Internet of Things has been created due to the appearance of smart devices. IoT generates a new dimension of the network. Its use has ceased to be the domain of man. Communication only between devices has become possible, posing new challenges, directly related to security threats and a lot of new opportunities for unauthorised data. While there is a common awareness of the potential risks in using computers or networks, the use of intelligent things is wrongly seen as making life easier and paradoxically more secure.It is extremely important to notice seemingly unimportant behaviour, but likely to cause harm. In a world with "smart? things, there are threats such as permanent surveillance, incessant and uncontrolled data leaks or identity theft. The challenge is to set up and formulate norms and enabling legislative processes to keep pace with the technology advancement.The use of ICT, especially in science and industry, changes everyday life already today. Society aging and increase in health care expenditure makes it imperative to expand the use of ICT in health care, where a revolution is expected with the use of intelligent diagnostic support systems, current health state monitoring and specialised technologies enabling remote medical procedures adaptation. But there are dangers associated with IoT use in health care requiring clearly defined criteria. Patients must be able to expect privacy and medical data safety.Even seemingly indispensable necessity to ensure the safety of medical data is not obvious.. Utilising ICT in the health sector will ensure change in approach towards patients and increased productivity. The need for privacy should be considered at the stage of technology design and implementation. Ensuring medical data security is paramount. Otherwise, social resistance and costs resulting from i.e. leakage of medical data and use of such data in an unlawful or even threatening manner will be very high.
    Keywords: health care, Internet of Things, privacy, security threats
    JEL: I18 K30 K32
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Antonio Vezzani (European Commission – JRC); Emanuele Pugliese (European Commission - JRC); Petros Gkotsis (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: In this work we use patent data from the European patent office (EPO) to assess the capabilities of EU regions in developing digital technologies especially focusing on those that are more closely related to the digital transformation. More specifically, we measure ICT patents by considering those containing digital codes, as defined by the OECD. The penetration of digital technologies in the development of innovative products is instead captured by the co-occurrence of digital and non-digital codes within patent documents; we call these patents ICT-combining patents.
    Keywords: Industrial transformation, Industry, Digital technologies, ICT, Regional specialisation
    JEL: O30 O14 R10 R58
    Date: 2018–10
  3. By: VAN THU BUI (ATAMA Advanced Technology Application Co., Ltd.); THI HIEU NGUYEN (ATAMA Advanced Technology Application Co., Ltd.); MINH DUC LE (ATAMA Advanced Technology Application Co., Ltd.)
    Abstract: Nowadays innovation such as applications of electronic devices and information technologies are commonly seen as one of the most important trends in sustainable development of health. Recently, Electrotherapy Equipment typed Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) are widely used for treatment of general acute and chronic pain syndromes. This equipment uses electrical stimulation of the peripheral nervous system to override pain messages or evoke muscle contractions and requires electrical stimulation with high accuracy. Traditionally, the electronic devices, then the IC, and most recently low power Complex Programmable logic (CPLDs) together with Information Technology (IT) have been used in designing and manufacturing of medical equipment. To improve the treatment?s capabilities, effects, planning and performance, a new Digital Electrotherapy Equipment has been designed using advanced system capabilities and re-programmability, programmable logic devices (PLDs), especially low power Complex Programmable logic (CPLDs), low-power, high-performance Microcontroller, based on neurophysiology and medical treatment knowledge. This new device has Switching Power Supply, Interface, Microcontroller, Pulse Amplitude, Pulse type modifier, Power Amplifier, Instrument Errors, and CPLD and Microcontroller Interface parts. The new type of the Electrotherapy Equipment also has an automatic self-test routine to detect functional errors during operations and display on a LCD. This equipment was tested several times at Center of Electrical Department, Faculty of Electronics-Telecommunications, Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) and has been used widely in several hospitals in Vietnam for treatment of thousands of patients. Applying the new technology allows more complex capabilities, improves the functionality, ergonomics, and lowers the production costs of the equipment. This digital electrotherapy equipment is easy to upgrade by software. The new equipment can generate 11 methods in treatment, 18 different treatment currents and 21 different waveforms which can be used to treat acute sprains and strains, arthritis, low back pain, osteoarthritis, shingles, spinal cord disorders, sports injuries and tendonitis. All of created waveforms have a high accuracy and stability satisfied EU standards. The tests and treatment results show that treatment?s capabilities, effects, planning and performance of the new type of the Electrotherapy Equipment are remarkably improved compared to the traditional ones. This method of design can also be used for many other medical devices.
    Keywords: Complex Programmable Logic Device, Digital Electrotherapy Equipment, Microcontrollers, Medical Devices
    JEL: I12 L86 O30
    Date: 2018–07
  4. By: Nofal, María B.; Coremberg, Ariel; Sartorio, Luca
    Abstract: As the pace of digitalization and automation accelerates globally, and more disruptive innovations in machine learning, artificial intelligence and robotics are expected, new data sources and measurement tools are needed to complement existing valuable statistics and administrative data. This is necessary to better understand the impact of technological change on the labor market and the economy and better inform policy decisions for inclusive people centered growth. In accordance with G20 Roadmap for Digitalisation (2017), points 10, 5 and 7, the authors propose to: i) track technological developments globally in a multidisciplinary and coordinated fashion; ii) develop new methods of measurement for the digital economy; iii) harmonize occupational taxonomies and develop new sources of data and indicators at the international level; iv) Build International Collaborative Platforms for Digital Skills and the Digital Transformation of SMES.
    Keywords: globalization,labor markets,employment polarization,labor share,skills,productivity,innovation,technological change,economic growth
    JEL: E01 J23 J24 J31 E25 O33 O4
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Nipun Bansal (Delhi Technological University); Mukul Sachdeva (DTU); Tanisha Mittal (DTU)
    Abstract: CAPTCHAs are computer generated tests in the form of images, audios and object recognition that world can communicate easily and computer systems cannot. Internet sites present users with captchas to set apart human users from false computer programs, often referred to as bots. Their purpose is to obstruct attackers from performing automatic registration, online polling and other such actions. IRCTC, being the website to reserve tickets for Indian railways, one of the biggest railway network, has also employed both image and audio captchas for security purposes. However, the audio captchas used on the website are not effective in distinguishing between humans and bots. Most of the visual CAPTCHAs and some audio CAPTCHAs on different websites have been cracked using various methods of machine learning and we propound an identical idea to examine the security of audio CAPTCHAs on IRCTC website. In this paper, we show that our bot is able to break the IRCTC audio captchas with a success rate of 98%, 96.04% and 80.3% using three different models. Along with breaking the captcha, another python script written by us was able to automate the process of ticket booking. Thus, combining all of it into a single package could result in a system which would login and reserve tickets only by a single click. Travel brokers can easily use such a system for easy and fast booking of tatkal tickets which would lead to commercializing this activity for deriving huge profit from needy travelers.
    Keywords: Audio Captchas, Automatic Speech Recognition, IRCTC, Security, MFCC, Deep Learning
    JEL: L86 C80 D85
    Date: 2018–07

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