nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2018‒10‒08
six papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Innovative Open Spaces Impact on New Product Development Teams By Hélène Sicotte; Andrée De Serres; Hélène Delerue; Virginie Ménard
  2. Accessing IRS Form 990 Data with Excel By Humberto Barreto; Michele Villinski
  3. Drivers of market liquidity - Regulation, monetary policy or new players? By Clemens Bonner; Eward Brouwer; Iman van Lelyveld
  4. A Modelling of the Role of Social Networks in Market Mechanism - Social Ties as Screening Tools in Price Discrimination By Karoly Miklos Kiss; Kinga Edocs
  5. Actor Fluidity and Knowledge Persistence in Regional Inventor Networks By Michael Fritsch; Moritz Zöllner
  6. Scanner Data, Elementary Price Indexes and the Chain Drift Problem By Diewert, Erwin

  1. By: Hélène Sicotte; Andrée De Serres; Hélène Delerue; Virginie Ménard
    Abstract: It is a new trend in knowledge-based industries to pay attention to the physical and social aspects of their office. Workspaces for new product development (NPD) teams are meant to support creativity and innovation (Coradi et al., 2015). Our research objective is to further explore the relationship between project teams and their workspaces. Indeed ""As leaders consider their workspace needs, they should be informed of workspace fads versus workspace intent"" (Blakey, 2015, p. 107).Certain characteristics of a space stand out as having significant impact: the modularity of elements that make up meeting rooms and individual workspaces, the possibility of transforming spaces according to needs and work styles, and the connectivity and intelligence of spaces (Vischer, 2008). Employees are also affected by density, the proximity of team colleagues, privacy and control over one's environment. Kristensen (2004) concludes that spaces affect individuals' well-being, impact channels of communication and the availability of knowledge tools, and influence coherence and continuity. McElroy and Morrow (2010) argue that changing a workplace layout can have a number of positive impacts. It can nurture lateral relationships among individuals on the same team or different teams, which in turn fosters innovation and creativity. To summarize, the literature points to positive effects between the physical and architectural characteristics of the space dedicated to project teams. Part of this influence is supposed to come from the impact on communication and collaboration (aggregated to team integration) between members and sub-teams, which improves their creativity and effectiveness. We report here the results of survey of ten teams in the same companie but different locations. The tested model includes two dependent variables: team creativity and effectiveness and a mediating variable: team integration. The independent variables are space variety, interior environment quality, satisfaction with large meeting room, project commitment, IT environment, workstation. Control variable is team size. The Cronbach's alpha are good ranging from 74.1 to 87.6. Our main results support the literature: the impact of innovative spaces on the efficiency and creativity of teams go through their effect on integration (measured by collaboration and communication).
    Keywords: corporate property management; Innovation; Open Space; team-based workplace; workplace creativity
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2018–01–01
  2. By: Humberto Barreto (Department of Economics and Management, DePauw University); Michele Villinski (Department of Economics and Management, DePauw University)
    Abstract: Form990.xlsm is a freely available, standalone, macro-enabled Excel workbook that allows users to easily download and analyze IRS Form 990 tax data for nonprofits. This information is extremely difficult to access in machine-readable format, but the IRS recently made the data available as XML files. Form990.xlsm directly imports data in separate sheets for each institution. This paper demonstrates how to use this tool by analyzing a small sample of private, selective liberal arts colleges. We compare Form 990 data with IPEDS and find substantial agreement, but important differences. Endowments were different by more than 5% in 7 of 46 observations. Student FTEs had a greater than 5% difference in 22 out 46 schools (several were over 20%). Form 990 data offer researchers an alternative to IPEDS that is arguably of higher quality.
    Keywords: nonprofit, endowment, tuition, IPEDS
    JEL: C8 I20
    Date: 2018–09
  3. By: Clemens Bonner; Eward Brouwer; Iman van Lelyveld
    Abstract: Using transaction level data of Dutch fixed income markets, we analyze the drivers of market liquidity between 2014 and 2016. Our results differ significantly across asset classes and during more volatile periods. Policy interventions, such as favourable treatment in liquidity regulation increases the liquidity of bonds. The effects of un- conventional monetary policy are mixed. On the whole it seems to reduce liquidity during normal times but supports it during more volatile periods. Market structure, i.e. the presence of High Frequency Traders (HFT), affects liquidity of sovereign but not of other bonds with reversed effects in more volatile periods. Bond specifics such as shorter maturity and higher ratings are consistently associated with higher liquidity.
    Keywords: Liquidity; Financial Markets; Monetary Policy; Regulation
    JEL: G18 G21 E42
    Date: 2018–09
  4. By: Karoly Miklos Kiss (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Pannonia, Veszprem); Kinga Edocs (University of Pannonia, Veszprem)
    Abstract: One of the most relevant and exciting issues in the latest decades in economics had been the asymmetric information and uncertainty, and their effects on market processes and efficiency. Some studies show that markets where information problems or/and uncertainty arise tend to be “networked”, and some studies propose that use of social networks can mitigate adverse selection and moral hazard problems, but this area is still under-developed. Price discrimination is a representative situation where asymmetric information vigorously appears. The firms rarely have precise information about the types of individual customers (their important features, preferences or willingness-to-pay), but can use incentive tools and screening mechanisms. Use of signaling and screening can reduce the cost of incentive under asymmetric information. We develop a model to show that social embeddedness of buyers and some relevant features of their social network can be used for screening to mitigate the information problem in pricing decisions.
    Keywords: asymmetric information, nonlinear pricing, incentive contracts, social network, social embeddedness
    JEL: D8 L11 Z13
    Date: 2018–09
  5. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration); Moritz Zöllner (FSU Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: The development of inventor networks is characterized by the addition of a significant number of new inventors, while a considerable number of incumbent inventors discontinue. We estimate the persistence of knowledge in regional inventor networks using alternative assumptions about knowledge transfer. Based on these estimates we analyze how the size and structure of a network may influence knowledge persistence over time. In a final step, we assess how persistent knowledge as well as the knowledge of new inventors effect the performance of regional innovation systems (RIS). The results suggest that the knowledge of new inventors is much more important for RIS performance than old knowledge that persists.
    Keywords: Innovation networks, knowledge, RandD cooperation, patents, persistence
    JEL: O3 R1 D2 D8
    Date: 2018–09–26
  6. By: Diewert, Erwin
    Abstract: Statistical agencies increasingly are able to collect detailed price and quantity information from retailers on sales of consumer products. Thus elementary price indexes (which are indexes constructed at the first stage of aggregation for closely related products) can now be constructed using this price and quantity information, whereas previously, statistical agencies had to construct elementary indexes using just retail outlet collected information on prices alone. Thus superlative indexes can now be constructed at the elementary level, which in theory, should lead to more accurate Consumer Price Indexes. However, retailers frequently sell products at heavily discounted prices, which lead to large increases in purchases of these products. This volatility in prices and quantities will generally lead to a chain drift problem; i.e., when prices return to their “normal†levels, quantities purchased are frequently below their “normal†levels and this leads to a downward drift in a superlative price index. The paper addresses this problem and looks at the likely bias in various index number formulae that are commonly used. The bias estimates are illustrated using some scanner data on the sales of frozen juice products that are available online.
    Keywords: Jevons, Dutot, Carli, Unit Value, Laspeyres, Paasche
    JEL: C43 C81 E31
    Date: 2018–08–30

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