nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2018‒08‒13
four papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Digital technology diffusion: A matter of capabilities, incentives or both? By Dan Andrews; Giuseppe Nicoletti; Christina Timiliotis
  2. Crowdsourced Innovation: How Community Managers Affect Crowd Activities By Lars Hornuf; Sabrina Jeworrek
  3. Falling Through the Net: The Digital Divide in Western Australia By Steven Bond-Smith; Alan S Duncan; Daniel Kiely; Silvia Salazar
  4. Julia Cagé, Nicolas Hervé, Marie-Luce Viaud, L’information à tout prix, Ina Editions, 2017. By Antoine Machut

  1. By: Dan Andrews; Giuseppe Nicoletti; Christina Timiliotis
    Abstract: Insufficient diffusion of new technologies has been quoted as one possible reason for weak productivity performance over the past two decades (Andrews et al., 2016). This paper uses a novel data set of digital technology usage covering 25 industries in 25 European countries over the 2010-16 period to explore the drivers of digital adoption across two broad sets of digital technologies by firms, cloud computing and back or front office integration. The focus is on structural and policy factors affecting firms’ capabilities and incentives to adopt -- including the availability of enabling infrastructures (such as high-speed broadband internet), managerial quality and workers skills, and product, labour and financial market settings. We identify the effects of structural and policy factors based on the difference-in-difference approach pioneered by Rajan and Zingales (1998) and show that a number of these factors are statistically and economically significant for technology adoption. Specifically, we find strong support for the hypothesis that low managerial quality, lack of ICT skills and poor matching of workers to jobs curb digital technology adoption and hence the rate of diffusion. Similarly our evidence suggests that policies affecting market incentives are important for adoption, especially those relevant for market access, competition and efficient reallocation of labour and capital. Finally, we show that there are important complementarities between the two sets of factors, with market incentives reinforcing the positive effects of enhancements in firm capabilities on adoption of digital technologies
    Keywords: diffusion, digital skills, Digital technologies, productivity
    JEL: D24 J24 O32 O33
    Date: 2018–07–30
  2. By: Lars Hornuf; Sabrina Jeworrek
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate whether and to what extent community managers in online collaborative communities can stimulate crowd activities through their engagement. Using a novel data set of 22 large online idea crowdsourcing campaigns, we find that active engagement of community managers positively affects crowd activities in an inverted Ushaped manner. Moreover, we evidence that intellectual stimulation by managers increases community participation, while individual consideration of users has no impact on user activities. Finally, the data reveal that community manager activities that require more effort, such as media file uploads instead of simple written comments, have a larger effect on crowd participation.
    Keywords: crowdsourcing, open innovation, crowdsourced innovation, crowdworking, ideation, managerial attention
    JEL: J21 J22 L86 M21 M54 O31
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Steven Bond-Smith (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin University); Alan S Duncan (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin University); Daniel Kiely (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Curtin Business School); Silvia Salazar (Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre, Curtin University)
    Abstract: New data technologies, big data analytics and intelligent software systems are transforming the way we produce, consume or distribute commodities, and increasingly, the way we access services. They are also changing the way in which we engage with our personal, social and business networks and communities. This BCEC Focus on WA report shows there are clear divides between the haves and have nots, across various measures of access, ability and affordability. At the household and individual level, we evidence clear differences along geographic, demographic and socio-economic lines, with one in four of the poorest households in Western Australia without access to the internet compared to almost all of the highest income households. Those most at risk of falling through the net in WA, and of becoming increasingly disconnected from society include: those living in the most remote areas; families at higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage; older population cohorts and low income families, including children at risk of missing out on the educational benefits of ICT. Analysis of expenditure patterns over time show that digital technologies are a necessity, particularly for those on lower incomes. The newly devised BCEC digital stress indicator identifies those households, by family composition and housing tenure, which are chiefly at risk. The BCEC Small Business Survey highlights that internet quality and coverage does vary significantly between Western Australia’s regions. The report found 26 per cent of small businesses in the South West and Pilbara regions rated the quality of their internet infrastructure as low, compared with 25 per cent in the Wheatbelt and only 11 per cent in Perth.
    Keywords: digital divide, productivity and innovation, digital transformation, digital infrastructure, internet connectivity, Western Australia, WA economy, regional connectedness, small business
    Date: 2018–08
  4. By: Antoine Machut (Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Antoine Machut, V1, 30 mai 2018, revue ppw et ds Julia Cagé, Nicolas Hervé, Marie-Luce Viaud, L'information à tout prix, Ina Editions, 2017. Cet ouvrage pose un problème éminemment actuel à propos de la production d'information. Quelle est la capacité des médias à produire de l'information originale alors qu'une énorme quantité d'articles est accessible au plus grand nombre rapidement et gratuitement sur Internet ? Si les médias ne gagnent (presque) pas d'argent à produire des articles en ligne, quelle incitation économique ont-ils à produire de l'information originale, plutôt que de reprendre de l'information déjà existante ? Issu d'un projet de recherche de grande ampleur qui vise à suivre la diffusion de l'information en France, le livre est co-rédigé par une économiste (Julia Cagé), un informaticien et une informaticienne (Nicolas Hervé et Marie-Luce Viaud). Cette collaboration entre disciplines donne lieu à un ouvrage impressionnant de richesse empirique et de limpidité, malgré la haute technicité des outils employés. Les outils du big data ont permis de collecter quasi-exhaustivement les articles de presse produits en ligne en 2013. Au total, plus de 2,5 millions de documents ont été collectés, provenant de 86 médias d'actualité généraliste, dont l'Agence France Presse (AFP), de dix pure-players (médias dont le contenu est publié exclusivement en ligne), ainsi que des sites web des radios et télévisions. Les outils du machine learning leur ont ensuite permis de soumettre ce corpus à des algorithmes de détection d'événements médiatiques, de copies et de citations. L'objet de l'étude est double : il s'agit d'une part d' objectiver et d'expliquer l'ampleur des pratiques de copié-collé d'articles de presse sur Internet (et inversement la production d'informations originales). C'est l'objet des chapitres 1 à 4. Il s'agit d'autre part de lier ce constat aux modèles économiques susceptibles d'inciter les médias à produire plus ou moins d'informations originales (chapitres 5 à 7).
    Date: 2018–09–01

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