nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2017‒09‒03
six papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Does Broadband Internet Affect Fertility? By Billari, Francesco C.; Giuntella, Osea; Stella, Luca
  2. Invention Machines: How Control Instruments and Information Technologies Drove Global Technologigal Progress over a Century of Invention By Koutroumpis, Pantelis; Leiponen, Aija; Thomas, Llewellyn D W
  3. Promoting investment in the Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway (AP-IS) By Atsuko Okuda and Siope Vakataki Ofa from the Transport Division.
  4. Computerization, Composition of Employment, and Structure of Wages By Robert Plant; Manuel S. Santos; Tarek Sayed
  5. E-Government for better governance and fiscal management By Steve Gui-Diby and Xin Li from the Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division.
  6. Block chain Technology:Concept of Digital Economics By Ahmed, Ovais

  1. By: Billari, Francesco C. (Bocconi University); Giuntella, Osea (University of Pittsburgh); Stella, Luca (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: The spread of high-speed Internet epitomizes the digital revolution, affecting several aspects of our life. Using German panel data, we test whether the availability of broadband Internet influences fertility choices in a low-fertility setting, which is well-known for the difficulty to combine work and family life. We exploit a strategy devised by Falck et al. (2014) to obtain causal estimates of the impact of broadband on fertility. We find positive effects of high-speed Internet availability on the fertility of high-educated women aged 25 and above. Effects are not statistically significant both for men, low-educated women, and under 25. We also show that broadband access significantly increases the share of women reporting teleworking or part-time working. Furthermore, we find positive effects on time spent with children and overall life satisfaction. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that high-speed Internet allows high-educated women to conciliate career and motherhood, which may promote fertility with a "digital divide". At the same time, higher access to information on the risks and costs of early pregnancy and childbearing may explain the negative effects on younger adults.
    Keywords: Internet, low fertility, work and family, teleworking
    JEL: J11 J22
    Date: 2017–08
  2. By: Koutroumpis, Pantelis; Leiponen, Aija; Thomas, Llewellyn D W
    Abstract: Abstract Inventions depend on skills, experience, and information exchange. Information is shared among individuals and organizations both intentionally and unintentionally. Unintentional flows of knowledge, or knowledge spillovers, are viewed as an integral element of technological progress. However, little is known about the overall patterns of knowledge flows across technology sectors or over long periods of time. This paper explores whether it is possible to identify “invention machines” – technologies that help create new inventions in a wide range of other sectors – and whether shifts in the patterns of knowledge flows can predict future technological change. In the spirit of big data we analyze the entire PatStat database of 90 million published patents from 160 patent offices over a century of invention and exploit variation within and across countries and technology fields over time. The direction and intensity of knowledge spillovers measured from prior-art citations highlight the transition from mechanical to electrical instruments, especially industrial control systems, and the rise of information and communication technologies as “invention machines” after 1970. Most recently, the rapidly increasing impact of digital communications on other fields may herald the emergence of cloud computing and the industrial internet as the new dominant industrial paradigm.
    Keywords: Innovation, patents, electrical instruments, instruments, information technology
    JEL: O32 O31 O12
    Date: 2017–08–23
  3. By: Atsuko Okuda and Siope Vakataki Ofa from the Transport Division. (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: The digital divide in Asia and the Pacific continues to widen over time. It affects ESCAP low-income countries (mostly LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS) which need ICT connectivity the most in their efforts towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In response, ESCAP member countries recently endorsed the AP-IS Master Plan and Regional Cooperation Framework Document which provide a regional platform for key stakeholders to coordinate and collaborate towards expanding investment in developing missing fibre-optic networks and improving inclusive broadband access. In that context, this brief explores how to promote broadband infrastructure investments.
  4. By: Robert Plant (University of Miami); Manuel S. Santos (University of Miami); Tarek Sayed (University of Miami)
    Abstract: Technology investment has been consistently growing since the 1950s when the mainframe started to impact the organization followed by the introduction of the PC in the early 1980s. Mainframes and minicomputers evolved into a distributed environment, which later gave way to the mobile platform, and to the machine to machine interactions. We study the impact of these technology episodes on US labor market trends. We focus on the composition of employment, varying compensation premiums across occupations, as well as a declining labor income share. We isolate some job attributes which have resisted computerization.
    Keywords: Technology eras, computerization, job attributes, education attainment, structured vs. unstructured work, social perceptiveness. Publication Status: Submitted
    JEL: I20 I24 J01 J24 J31
    Date: 2017–08–28
  5. By: Steve Gui-Diby and Xin Li from the Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division. (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: This policy brief presents short case studies of e-tools that make up the different aspects of e-government; the latter encompassing the capacity or aptitude of the public sector to use information and communications technology (ICT) for public service delivery (e-tools) as well as the willingness of the government to use these tools to engage with its citizens and deliver services. The policy brief concludes with some disadvantages of using e-tools, and e-government related areas in which Asia-Pacific countries need to make more efforts.
  6. By: Ahmed, Ovais
    Abstract: The purpose of the study is to explain about blockchain technology and how to use of blockchain technology for modern economics practices. We focused on this paper to put the light on blockchain usage in some other areas of economy such as, governance and political decision making, public finance, financial institution & stock market trading, global trading and other economic activities. The literature showed that blockchain is rapidly growing at globally and increasing digital money for transactions through peer to peer network. The opinion is given in this research to implement blockchain technology on behind the every single sector of economy to prevent from corruption, fraudulent/ fake funding on infrastructure and human capital.
    Keywords: Blockchain Technology, Digital Economics, Cryptocurrency
    JEL: M0 O33 Y2 Y8
    Date: 2017–08–24

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