nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
seven papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Dijital Bolunme Cercevesinde Turkiye'nin Durumunun Degerlendirilmesi By Baris Yildiz; Gizem Akbulut
  2. Technology-driven information sharing and conditional financial development in Africa By Simplice Asongu; John C. Anyanwu; Vanessa S. Tchamyou
  3. Policies to expand digital skills for the machine age By John P. Martin
  4. Schengen in addition to smart ICT and strong legislation needs also more responsible governance By Dusan Soltes
  5. Rational and Emotional Messages Amid Online News Exposure of the Brand By Boonchai Hongcharu
  6. Regulating 'platform power' By Orla Lynskey
  7. Online Supervision of Teachers in the Expanding K-12 Online Teaching World By Joy Kutaka-Kennedy

  1. By: Baris Yildiz (Gumushane University, Department of Public Finance); Gizem Akbulut (Gumushane University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Bilgi ve Iletisim Teknolojilerinde (BIT-ICT) yasanan gelismeler ulkelerin mevcut durumlarinin degerlendirilmesine isik tutmaktadir. Ulkelerin sahip olduklari BIT dinamiklerinin farkli olmasindan kaynaklanan dijital bolunme sorunu hala ciddi bir sekilde yasanmaktadir. Dijital Bolunme (Digital Divide) kavraminin pek cok tanimi yapilmakla birlikte BIT (ICT-Information and Communication Technologies)'ye sahip olanlar ile olmayanlar, ICT'yi kullanan ve kullanmayanlar arasindaki farklilik duzeyleri olarak tanimlamak mumkundur. Dijital bolunme kavrami sadece kuresel olcekte degil ayni zamanda ulke icerisinde bolgeler arasinda yasanan esitsizlik sonucu da meydana gelebilmektedir. Diger taraftan gelismekte olan ulkelerin icerisinde yasanan dijital bolunme sorunu gelismis ulkelerle olan iliskilerini de etkileyebilmektedir. Dijital bolunme sadece gelismekte olan ulkelerin degil ayni zamanda gelismis ulkelerin de sorunu haline gelmektedir. Bilgiye ve teknolojiye erisimlerin kiyaslanmasinda cesitli endeks degerler kullanilmakla birlikte Uluslararasi Telekomunikasyon Birligi (ITU) tarafindan gelistirilen ICT Gelisme Endeksi-IDI (ICT Development Index) olcut olarak calismada kullanilmistir. Gelismekte olan ulkeler arasinda yer alan Turkiye acisindan bu endeks degere gore 2000 yilindan itibaren genel olarak olumlu bir seyir izledigi gorulmustur. Ancak bu olumlu seyir Turkiye'nin gelismis ulkeler arasinda yer almasi noktasinda yetersiz kalmaktadir. Hem Turkiye icerisinde bolgelerarasi esitsizligin yuksek oranda olmasi hem de gelismis ulkelerle kiyaslandiginda endeks siralamasinda oldukca gerilerde kalmasi Turkiye'nin dijital bolunme sorununa cozum bulmasini zorunlu kilmaktadir.
    Keywords: Teknoloji, Dijital Bolunme, Bilgi ve Iletisim Teknolojileri
    JEL: O14 L86 L96
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); John C. Anyanwu (African Development Bank, Côte d\\\'Ivoire); Vanessa S. Tchamyou (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: Information technology is increasingly facilitating mechanisms by which information asymmetry between lenders and borrowers in the financial sector can be reduced in order to enhance financial access for human and economic development in developing countries. We examine conditional financial development from ICT-driven information sharing in 53 African countries for the period 2004-2011, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. ICT is measured with mobile phone penetration and internet penetration whereas information sharing offices are public credit registries and private credit bureaus. The following findings are established. First, there are positive effects with positive thresholds from ICT-driven information sharing on financial depth (money supply and liquid liabilities) and financial activity (at banking and financial system levels). Second, for financial intermediation efficiency, the positive effects from mobile-driven information sharing are apparent exclusively in certain levels of financial efficiency. Third, with regard to financial size, mobile-driven information sharing is positive with a negative threshold, whereas, internet-driven information sharing is positive exclusively among countries in the bottom half of financial size. Positive thresholds are defined as decreasing negative or increasing positive estimated effects from information sharing offices and vice-versa for negative thresholds. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Information Sharing; Financial Development; Quantile regression
    JEL: G20 G29 O16 O55 C52
    Date: 2017–01
  3. By: John P. Martin
    Abstract: A new technological epoch is underway – the so-called Machine Age –reflecting advances in artificial intelligence, digitalisation and Big Data. Some commentators have claimed that this epoch is different from previous ones in that it will produce large-scale technological unemployment, while others argue the contrary. Only time will judge who is right on this crucial debate. But the Machine Age will lead to major shifts in the demand and supplies of skills, especially digital skills. In this paper, I review the available crosscountry evidence on the distribution of such digital skills across the adult populations within and across a large sample of OECD countries. I also review the evidence on participation rates in adult learning. Finally, I outline how education, training and labour market policies could help expand the supply of digital skills.
    Keywords: Machine Age,technological unemployment,ICT-literacy/digital skills,adult learning,education and training policies,wage insurance
    JEL: I28 J24 J68 O33
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Dusan Soltes (Faculty of Management, Comenius University)
    Abstract: The paper is dealing with one of the currently most controversial issues in the EU regarding the protection of the external borders of the EU in the form of the so-called Schengen external border of the Union. On the one hand it is very difficult for the EU new member states to become a part of the Schengen border protection system as it requires a lot of effort and investments into the latest ICT technology and all various other technical but also organizational and personnel requirements. But on the other hand right now we have been witnessing a real disastrous situation on the southern flank of the Schengen border where illegal immigrants especially from Africa are daily illegally entering the territory of the EU. The paper in more details will be dealing with this evident paradox between the latest ICT technology and humanitarian and other aspects of International humanitarian law.
    Keywords: the Schengen area, the Schengen external border of the EU, Smart ICT, SIS ? Schengen Information System
    JEL: F51 F22 F15
  5. By: Boonchai Hongcharu (NIDA Business School)
    Abstract: Customers receive a large amount of information from today?s online world. It has been increasingly difficult for the marketers to monitor and respond to different types of messages affecting their brand. At the same time, marketers also need to communicate with customers through various types of messages. It is interesting to understand the roles of message appeals have while customers expose to different types of online news about the brand. We conduct an experiment with 240 randomly selected subjects on a 2 message appeals (rational and emotion) X 4 online news exposure (no exposure, positive news exposure, negative news exposure and both positive and negative news exposure) factorial design to explore their effects on five aspects of consumer responses: attitude toward the ad, credibility, persuasion, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. The results revealed both message appeals and online news exposure significantly affect attitudes toward the ad and the brand. Message appeals have a significant effect on persuasion and only the interactions of both factors affect purchase intention. Discussion and implications on the findings will be provided.
    Keywords: message appeals, rational message, emotional message, online news exposure, positive news, negative news, consumer response,
    JEL: M30 M31 M37
  6. By: Orla Lynskey
    Abstract: Increasing regulatory and doctrinal attention has recently focused on the problem of ‘platform power’. Yet calls for regulation of online platforms fail to identify the problems such regulation would target, and as a result appear to lack merit. In this paper, two claims are advanced. First, that the concept of ‘platform power’ is both an under and over-inclusive regulatory target and, as such, should be replaced by the broader concept of a ‘digital gatekeeper’. Second, that existing legal mechanisms do not adequately reflect the power over information flows and individual behaviour that gatekeepers can exercise. In particular, this gatekeeper power can have implications for individual rights that competition law and economic regulation are not designed to capture. Moreover, the technological design, and complexity, of digital gatekeepers renders their operations impervious to scrutiny by individual users, thereby exacerbating these potential implications.
    JEL: L81
    Date: 2017–02–21
  7. By: Joy Kutaka-Kennedy (National University)
    Abstract: In today?s word, we are becoming more wired and tech savvy every day. Whole cities, metro systems, universities and school districts have free internet access as we become more technologically embedded in our interconnected world. Many schools offer K-12 students online classes, some districts even requiring that students take an online class before graduating and other districts becoming fully online with no ?brick and mortar? classrooms. Despite the growing demand for online teachers, university teacher preparation programs are slow to develop programs to meet the need. Many options exist to broaden the field experience with supervision using online technologies and supports like online synchronous and asynchronous discussion boards, collaborative or self-reflective video analysis and review, and live, real time chats and feedback. Tools such as these can lead the way to program development and expansion to better prepare future teachers for teaching in the K-12 online environment.
    Keywords: online teaching, online supervision, online video tools
    JEL: I29 I23 I20

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