nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2017‒03‒05
four papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Effects of digital engagement on the quality of life of older people By Jacqueline Damant; Martin Knapp; Paul P. Freddolino; Daniel Lombard
  2. Development and validation of the Internet Skills Scale (ISS) By Alexander J.A.M. Van Deursen; Ellen J. Helsper; Rebecca Eynon
  3. Analisis Perbandingan Respons Time Squid Proxy Pada Windows Server dan Linux Server By Sirait, Parulian
  4. Competing with Big Data By Prüfer, Jens; Schottmuller, C.

  1. By: Jacqueline Damant; Martin Knapp; Paul P. Freddolino; Daniel Lombard
    Abstract: It is often asserted that older people's quality of life (QOL) is improved when they adopt information and communication technology (ICT) such as the Internet, mobile phones and computers. Similar assumptions are made about older people's use of ICT-based care such as telecare and telehealth. To examine the evidence around these claims, we conducted a scoping review of the academic and grey literature, coving the period between January 2007 and August 2014. A framework analysis approach, based on six domains of QOL derived from the ASCOT and WHOQOL models, was adopted to deductively code and analyse relevant literature. The review revealed mixed results. Older people's use of ICT in both mainstream and care contexts has been shown to have both positive and negative impacts on several aspects of QOL. Studies which have rigorously assessed the impact of older people's use of ICT on their QOL mostly demonstrate little effect. A number of qualitative studies have reported on the positive effects for older people who use ICT such as email or Skype to keep in touch with family and friends. Overall, the review unearthed several inconsistencies around the effects of older people's ICT use on their QOL, suggesting that implicit agreement is needed on the best research methods and instrumentation to adequately describe older people's experiences in today's digital age. Moreover, the available evidence does not consider the large number of older people who do not use ICT and how non-use affects QOL.
    Keywords: nternet; older people; quality of life; technology; telecare; telehealth
    JEL: L91 L96
    Date: 2016–02–16
  2. By: Alexander J.A.M. Van Deursen; Ellen J. Helsper; Rebecca Eynon
    Abstract: Although a number of instruments have been used to measure Internet skills in nationally representative surveys, there are several challenges with the measures available: incompleteness and over-simplification, conceptual ambiguity, and the use of self-reports. Here, we aim to overcome these challenges by developing a set of reliable measures for use in research, practice, and policy evaluations based on a strong conceptual framework. To achieve this goal, we carried out a literature review of skills-related studies to develop the initial Internet skills framework and associated instrument. After the development of this instrument, we used a three-fold approach to test the validity and reliability of the latent skill constructs and the corresponding items. The first step consisted of cognitive interviews held in both the UK and the Netherlands. Based on the cognitive interview results, we made several amendments to the proposed skill items to improve clarity. The second step consisted of a pilot survey of digital skills, both in the UK and in the Netherlands. During the final step, we examined the consistency of the five Internet skill scales and their characteristics when measured in a representative sample survey of Dutch Internet users. The result is a theoretical, empirically and cross-nationally consistent instrument consisting of five types of Internet skills: operational, navigation information, social, creative, and mobile.
    Keywords: Internet skills; digital skills; interviews; scale construction
    JEL: L91 L96
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Sirait, Parulian
    Abstract: In the development of information technology, information is obtained quickly through technology computer network known as the Internet. The use bandwidth for Internet access can be maximized by using a proxy server. One of the proxy server is squid. The use squid as the proxy server need to consider the operating system on the server and have not known its best performance on any operating system yet. For that it is necessary to analyze the performance of squid proxy server on a different operating system, in this case for Linux and Windows. The study was conducted to compare the response time squid proxy server when compared to its use on Windows server and Linux server. To achieve the objectives of the study, conducted testing by implementing squid proxy server on Windows server and Linux server. Then, from the client computer is accessing the Internet from each server using a web browser such as Mozilla Firefox and Internet Explorer. For simplicity, this study uses a client with 10 times test site access from the server. The results of test performed, we concluded that the response time by using squid proxy server on a Linux server is better than using on the Windows server. This case evidenced from the results of experiment that showing the most changes in response time is from the Linux server.
    Keywords: Proxy, Linux, Windows
    JEL: Z00
    Date: 2016–09–01
  4. By: Prüfer, Jens (Tilburg University, TILEC); Schottmuller, C. (Tilburg University, TILEC)
    Abstract: This paper studies competition in data-driven markets, that is, markets where the cost of quality production is decreasing in the amount of machine-generated data about user preferences or characteristics, which is an inseparable byproduct of using services offered in such markets. This gives rise to data-driven indirect network effects. We construct a dynamic model of R&D competition, where duopolists repeatedly determine their innovation investments, and show that such markets tip under very mild conditions, moving towards monopoly. In a tipped market, innovation incentives both for the dominant firm and for competitors are small. We also show under which conditions a dominant firm in one market can leverage its position to a connected market, thereby initiating a domino effect. We show that market tipping can be avoided if competitors share their user information.
    Keywords: big data; datafication; data-driven indirect network effects; dynamic competition; regulation
    JEL: D43 D92 L13 L43 L86
    Date: 2017

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