nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2016‒10‒02
four papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Mapping digital businesses with big data: some early findings from the UK By Max Nathan; Anna Rosso
  2. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and International Trade: Evidence from Turkey. By Burcu Ozcan; Hiranya Nath
  3. Multiplex interbank networks and systemic importance: an application to European data By Aldasoro, Iñaki; Alves, Iván
  4. Structural Transformation in the OECD: Digitalisation, Deindustrialisation and the Future of Work By Thor Berger; Carl Benedikt Frey

  1. By: Max Nathan; Anna Rosso
    Abstract: Governments around the world want to develop their ICT industries. Researchers and policymakers thus need a clear picture of digital businesses, but conventional datasets and typologies tend to lag real-world change. We use innovative ‘big data’ resources to perform an alternative analysis for all active companies in the UK, focusing on ICT-producing firms. Exploiting a combination of observed and modelled variables, we develop a novel ‘sector-product’ approach and use text mining to provide further detail on key sector-product cells. We find that the ICT production space is around 42% larger than SIC-based estimates, with around 70,000 more companies. We also find ICT employment shares over double the conventional estimates, although this result is more speculative. Our findings are robust to various scope, selection and sample construction challenges. We use our experiences to reflect on the broader pros and cons of frontier data use.
    Keywords: Big Data; Text mining; ICTs; Digital economy; Industrial policy; Firm-level analysis
    JEL: C81 L63 L86 O38
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Burcu Ozcan (Department of Economics, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey); Hiranya Nath (Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) on international trade between Turkey and its trading partners. Based on an extended panel gravity model, the effects of four ICT indices on Turkish bilateral exports and imports are examined with static and dynamic panel data models for the period 2000-2014. The sample includes 35 countries that import Turkish goods and 34 countries that export goods to Turkey. The results indicate that ICT has positive and significant impacts on both Turkish import and export volumes. Additionally, ICT has a larger effect on imports than on exports. Among ICT indices, ICT access has the largest effect on exports while ICT skills have the strongest impact on imports. In contrast, ICT use has the least impact on both Turkish exports and imports. These results are robust to alternative specifications and estimation methods. Based on these results, some policy implications can be derived. For instance, Turkey may develop strategic trading partnerships with countries that have high levels of ICT endowments, in order to increase its overall trade.
    Keywords: : Information and Communication Technology; international trade; trade costs; gravity model; panel data models
    JEL: F10 F14 O30
    Date: 2016–09
  3. By: Aldasoro, Iñaki; Alves, Iván
    Abstract: Research on interbank networks and systemic importance is starting to recognise that the web of exposures linking banks balance sheets is more complex than the single-layer-of-exposure approach. We use data on exposures between large European banks broken down by both maturity and instrument type to characterise the main features of the multiplex structure of the network of large European banks. This multiplex network presents positive correlated multiplexity and a high similarity between layers, stemming both from standard similarity analyses as well as a core-periphery analyses of the different layers. We propose measures of systemic importance that fit the case in which banks are connected through an arbitrary number of layers (be it by instrument, maturity or a combination of both). Such measures allow for a decomposition of the global systemic importance index for any bank into the contributions of each of the sub-networks, providing a useful tool for banking regulators and supervisors in identifying tailored policy instruments. We use the dataset of exposures between large European banks to illustrate that both the methodology and the specific level of network aggregation matter in the determination of interconnectedness and thus in the policy making process. JEL Classification: G21, D85, C67
    Keywords: interbank networks, multiplex networks, systemic importance
    Date: 2016–09
  4. By: Thor Berger; Carl Benedikt Frey
    Abstract: In tandem with the diffusion of computer technologies, labour markets across the OECD have undergone rapid structural transformation. In this paper, we examine i) the impact of technological change on labour market outcomes since the computer revolution of the 1980s, and ii) recent developments in digital technology – including machine learning and robotics – and their potential impacts on the future of work. While it is evident that the composition of the workforce has shifted dramatically over recent decades, in part as a result of technological change, the impacts of digitalisation on the future of jobs are far from certain. On the one hand, accumulating anecdotal evidence shows that the potential scope of automation has expanded beyond routine work, making technological change potentially increasingly labour-saving: according to recent estimates 47 percent of US jobs are susceptible to automation over the forthcoming decades. On the other hand, there is evidence suggesting that digital technologies have not created many new jobs to replace old ones: an upper bound estimate is that around 0.5 percent of the US workforce is employed in digital industries that emerged throughout the 2000s. Nevertheless, at first approximation, there is no evidence to suggest that the computer revolution so far has reduced overall demand for jobs as technologically stagnant sectors of the economy – including health care, government and personal services – continue to create vast employment opportunities. Looking forward, however, we argue that as the potential scope of automation is expanding, many sectors that have been technologically stagnant in the past are likely to become technologically progressive in the future. While we should expect a future surge in productivity as a result, the question of whether gains from increases in productivity will be widely shared depends on policy responses. Parallèlement à la diffusion des technologies numériques, les marchés du travail dans la zone OCDE ont subi une rapide transformation structurelle. Dans cet article, nous allons examiner i) l'impact des changements technologiques sur la performance du marché du travail depuis la révolution informatique des années 1980 et ii) les développements récents en matière de technologie numérique, y compris de l'apprentissage machine [machine learning] et de la robotique, ainsi que leurs impacts potentiels sur l'avenir du travail. Bien qu'il soit évident que la composition de la main-d'oeuvre a radicalement changé au cours des dernières décennies, en partie en raison de l'évolution technologique, les impacts de la numérisation sur l'avenir des emplois sont loin d'être certains. D'une part, il semblerait que la portée potentielle de l'automatisation s'est développée au-delà du travail de routine, rendant les changements technologiques potentiellement de plus en plus générateurs d'économies de main-d'oeuvre : au cours des prochaines décennies, selon des estimations récentes, 47 % des emplois américains pourront être automatisés. D'autre part, il existe des preuves suggérant que les technologies numériques n'ont pas créé beaucoup de nouveaux emplois pour remplacer les anciens et une estimation de la limite supérieure montre que la main-d'oeuvre des États-Unis n’est utilisée qu’à hauteur de 0,5 % dans les industries numériques qui ont émergé au cours des années 2000. Néanmoins, à ce jour, sur la base d’une première estimation, il n'y a aucune preuve que la révolution informatique ait réduit la demande globale pour les emplois dans les secteurs de l´économie qui sont technologiquement en stagnation, y compris dans les soins de santé, l’administration et les services aux personnes, qui continuent à engager du personnel et à créer de larges possibilités d'emploi. À l'avenir, cependant, nous estimons que la portée potentielle de l'automatisation est en pleine expansion, de nombreux secteurs qui ont été technologiquement stagnants par le passé sont susceptibles de progresser technologiquement à l'avenir. Par conséquent, nous devons nous attendre à une future hausse de la productivité. En revanche, la question de savoir si les gains provenant des augmentations de productivité seront amplement partagés dépend des réponses politiques.
    Keywords: digitalisation, future of work
    JEL: E24 J24 J62 O33
    Date: 2016–09–30

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