nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2016‒08‒21
five papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. The Mobile Phone in the Diffusion of Knowledge for Institutional Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta
  2. The US-EU Privacy Shield Pact: A Work in Progress By Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Euijin Jung
  3. The Role of ICT in Reducing Information Asymmetry for Financial Access By Asongu, Simplice; Moulin, Bertrand
  4. ISO/IEC 3850x - Die Normenreihe zur IT-Governance By Klotz, Michael
  5. Mobile Phones in the Diffusion of Knowledge and Persistence in Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta

  1. By: Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta
    Abstract: This study assesses the mobile phone in the diffusion of knowledge for better governance in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2000-2012. For this purpose we employ Generalised Method of Moments with forward orthogonal deviations. The empirical evidence is based on three complementary knowledge diffusion variables (innovation, internet penetration and educational quality) and ten governance indicators that are bundled and unbundled. The following are the main findings. First, there is an unconditional positive effect of mobile phone penetration on good governance. Second, the net effects on political, economic and institutional governances that are associated with the interaction of the mobile phone with knowledge diffusion variables are positive for the most part. Third, countries with low levels of governance are catching-up their counterparts with higher levels of governance. The above findings are broadly consistent with theoretical underpinnings on the relevance of mobile phones in mitigating bad governance in Africa. The evidence of some insignificant net effects and decreasing marginal impacts may be an indication that the mobile phone could also be employed to decrease government quality. Overall, this study has established net positive effects for the most part. Five rationales could elicit the positive net effects on good governance from the interaction between mobile phones and knowledge diffusion, among others, the knowledge variables enhance: reach, access, adoption, cost-effectiveness and interaction. In a nut shell, the positive net effects are apparent because the knowledge diffusion variables complement mobile phones in reducing information asymmetry and monopoly that create conducive conditions for bad governance. The contribution of the findings to existing theories and justifications of the underlying positive net effects are discussed.
    Keywords: Mobile phones; Governance; Africa
    JEL: G20 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2016–03
  2. By: Gary Clyde Hufbauer (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Euijin Jung (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: The modern global economy is fueled by consumers, companies, and governments communicating and exchanging information via the internet. But as people around the world engage in e-commerce, seek jobs, and share intimate details about their lives via social media, concerns arise over the vast stores of personal data possessed by multinational companies—and the risk that information transmitted over cyber networks can become readily available to US intelligence and law enforcement agencies. To allay these concerns, the United States and the European Union signed the Privacy Shield Pact on July 12, 2016, aimed at protecting individual privacy while meeting the legitimate needs of companies and the government. This Policy Brief elucidates the elements of that pact, a revision of earlier agreements covering the same issues. It argues that the pact reflects a reasonable compromise between legitimate competing interests but that as commerce expands, as concerns about invasions of privacy grow, and as the United States faces increasing threats from terrorists, criminals, and hackers in the cyber world, some of its provisions may need to be adjusted, especially if new international agreements are reached on trade, investment, and e-commerce.
    Date: 2016–08
  3. By: Asongu, Simplice; Moulin, Bertrand
    Abstract: This study assesses the role of ICT in complementing private credit bureaus (PCB) and public credit registries (PCR) in reducing information asymmetry for financial access. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments with 53 African countries for the period 2004-2011. The following findings are established. First on financial access: (i) the marginal effects from interactions between ICT and PCR (PCB) are consistently positive (negative); (ii) net effects from interactions are negative with the higher magnitude from PCR and (iii) only thresholds corresponding to interactions between PCR and internet penetration are within range. Second, findings on financial allocation efficiency reveal positive marginal and net effects exclusively for mobile phones and PCR. Third, allocation efficiency may be constrained by increasing financial deposits. Overall, the complementarity between information offices and ICT in boosting financial access is still very limited. Policy implications are discussed with emphasis on improving the engaged complementarity and fighting surplus liquidity.
    Keywords: Financial access; Information asymmetry; ICT
    JEL: G20 G29 L96 O40 O55
    Date: 2016–01
  4. By: Klotz, Michael
    Abstract: In diesem Arbeitspapier wird die Norm "ISO/IEC 38500" beschrieben und analysiert. Die erste Ausgabe der Norm wurde im Juni 2008 als "ISO/IEC 38500:2008 Corporate governance of information technology" veröffentlicht. Die zweite Ausgabe folgte im Februar 2015 als "ISO/IEC 38500:2015 Information technology - Governance of IT for the organization". Im Folgenden wird auf die institutionellen Hintergründe, die wesentlichen Bestandteile der ISO/IEC 38500:2015, das grundlegende Modell und die Prinzipien zur IT-Governance sowie auf die aus der Verbindung von Prinzipien und Governance-Funktionen resultierenden Leitlinien zur Ausgestaltung der IT-Governance eingegangen. Auch werden die Entwicklung zur Normenreihe und die Zusammenhänge der einzelnen Dokumente dieser Reihe verdeutlicht. Die Bedeutung der ISO/IEC 38500: 2015 wird vor allem in der Trennung zwischen IT-Governance und IT-Management sowie dem damit verbundenen Modell der IT-Governance gesehen. Dieses Modell hat die drei Governance-Funktionen "Evaluate - Direct - Monitor" eingeführt, die auch in COBIT® 5 Eingang gefunden haben. Neben der ISO/ IEC 38500:2015 werden auch die technische Spezifikation "ISO/IEC TS 38501:2015" und der technische Report "ISO/IEC TR 38502:2014" behandelt. Die ISO/IEC TS 38501:2015 beschreibt als Implementierungsleitfaden einen zyklischen Implementierungsansatz mit drei Phasen, die jeweils detailliert dargestellt werden. Der ISO/IEC TR 38502:2014 beinhaltet im Wesentlichen die in die ISO/IEC 38500:2015 weitgehend identisch übernommenen Begriffsdefinitionen sowie das Modell der IT-Governance. Daneben werden Vertiefungen zur Unterscheidung zwischen Governance und Management sowie ein Framework für die IT-Governance behandelt. Im Vergleich der verschiedenen Dokumente (Norm, Report, Spezifikation) sind Unstimmigkeiten i. S. einer mangelnden Bezugnahme zu entdecken. Insbesondere die in der ISO/IEC 38500:2015 etablierte Struktur der Verbindung von Governance-Funktionen mit Prinzipien der IT-Governance wird im Report und in der Spezifikation nicht weiter als Analyse- und Bewertungsraster verwendet. Trotzdem stellen die Norm und die ergänzenden Dokumente ein Hilfsmittel für die Praxis in der Ausgestaltung und ständigen Verbesserung der IT-Governance dar. Standards zur Steuerung und Überwachung der Unternehmens-IT, allen voran COBIT®, werden in ihrer Weiterentwicklung die ISO/IEC 3850x berücksichtigen müssen.
    Keywords: COBIT 5,Corporate Governance,DIN,IEC,ISO,ISO/IEC 38500,IT,IT-Governance,IT-Management,Norm,Unternehmen
    JEL: L21 L22 M10 M14 M21
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta
    Abstract: The success of inclusive development strategies in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda depends substantially on the adoption of common inclusive development policies among nations. Building on the relevance of a knowledge economy in the post-2015 development agenda, this study models the feasibility of common policies for inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More specifically, we investigate the complementary role of knowledge diffusion in the inclusive benefits of mobile phone penetration in SSA from 2000 to 2012 by employing the Generalised Method of Moments. Knowledge diffusion variables include educational quality, innovation and internet penetration. The main finding is that inclusive human development is persistently conditional on mobile phones in knowledge diffusion. Moreover, countries with low levels of inclusive human development are catching-up their counterparts with higher development. Policy implications are discussed with particular emphasis on how to leverage common knowledge economy initiatives for inclusive development.
    Keywords: Mobile phones; catch-up; inclusive human development; Africa
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 O55
    Date: 2016–03

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