nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2016‒05‒21
eleven papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. Measuring (in a time of crisis) the impact of broadband connections on economic growth: an OECD panel analysis By Angelo Castaldo; Alessandro Fiorini; Bernardo Maggi
  2. Liberation Technology: Mobile Phones and Political Mobilization in Africa By Manacorda, Marco; Tesei, Andrea
  3. How Much Does Speed Matter in the Fixed to Mobile Broadband Substitution in Europe ? By Michele Cincera; Lauriane Dewulf; Antonio Estache
  4. Empowerment and/or disempowerment: the politics of digital media By Robin Mansell
  5. Technology and Education: Computers, Software, and the Internet By George Bulman; Robert W. Fairlie
  6. Business Model as Relational Aggregator: Exploring Business Relationships By Laya, Andres; Jocevski, Milan; Ghezzi, Antonio; Markendahl, Jan
  7. Internet searches and transactions on the housing market By Sander van Veldhuizen; Benedikt Vogt; Bart Voogt
  8. The Role of Governance in Mobile Phones for Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice Asongu; Jacinta C. Nwachukwu
  9. Market fragmentation in Video-on-Demand Services in the EU28 By Georgios Alaveras; Estrella Gomez Herrera; Bertin Martens
  10. Implementation of ITC to make the Chemistry more interesting in Engineerer Grades By María del Mar López Guerrero; Gema López Guerrero
  11. Digital Tools for Capturing User?s Needs on Urban Open Spaces: Drawing Lessons from Cyberparks project By Smaniotto Costa, Carlos; Bahillo Martínez, Alfonso; Álvarez, Fernando J.; ?uklje Erjavec, Ina; Menezes, Marluci; Montserrat Pallares-Barbera

  1. By: Angelo Castaldo ("Sapienza" University of Rome); Alessandro Fiorini ("Sapienza" University of Rome); Bernardo Maggi ("Sapienza" University of Rome)
    Abstract: Technological innovation is viewed as a major stimulus for economic growth. High-speed internet access via broadband infrastructure has been experiencing a prompt development since the end of 90s, thanks to the deployment of both fix and mobile technologies. The present study investigates on the behavior of broadband diffusion as a technological determinant of economic growth in the main OECD countries. The estimations performed allowed to control and interpret the time evolution of the phenomenon according to the achievable target of growth, as resulting from the promotion of broadband internet connections. Our main goal is to provide evidence of a relevant - in quantitative term - relation between broadband diffusion and economic dynamics in the short, medium and long run.
    Keywords: Broadband access, economic growth, technology diffusion, logistic curve, dynamic panel.
    JEL: L96 O47 O33 H54
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Manacorda, Marco; Tesei, Andrea
    Abstract: Can digital information and communication technology (ICT) foster mass political mobilization? We use a novel geo-referenced dataset for the entire African continent between 1998 and 2012 on the coverage of mobile phone signal together with geo-referenced data from multiple sources on the occurrence of protests and on individual participation in protests to bring this argument to empirical scrutiny. We find that mobile phones are instrumental to mass mobilization during economic downturns, when reasons for grievance emerge and the cost of participation falls. Estimated effects are if anything larger once we use an instrumental variable approach that relies on differential trends in coverage across areas with different incidence of lightning strikes. The results are in line with insights from a network model with imperfect information and strategic complementarities in protest provision. Mobile phones make individuals more responsive to both changes in economic conditions - a mechanism that we ascribe to enhanced information - and to their neighbors' participation - a mechanism that we ascribe to enhanced coordination. Empirically both effects are at play, highlighting the channels through which digital ICT can alleviate the collective action problem.
    Keywords: Africa; collective action; geo-referenced data; mobile phones
    JEL: D70 L96 O55
    Date: 2016–05
  3. By: Michele Cincera; Lauriane Dewulf; Antonio Estache
    Keywords: mobile; fixed; broadband; substitution; speed; econometrics; Europe; deregulation; competition; ICT
    JEL: D43 L43 L86
  4. By: Robin Mansell
    Abstract: This article examines prevailing institutional norms that are visible in international policy discourse concerning the goals of investing in digital technologies. An analysis of policy discourse associated with the World Summit on the Information Society shows how, despite the use of terms such as “open” and “participatory,” the practice of information and communication technology project implementation displays evidence of failures to empower local people. The discussion is framed by the lessons about asymmetrical institutionalized power from theories concerned with the dynamics of techno-economic change contrasted with the prevailing market-led technology diffusion perspective. The context for the article is the experience of contributing to a high-level policy report for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s 2013 review of progress toward knowledge societies. Examples drawn from digital technology applications are used to illustrate the asymmetrical power relations embedded in these developments.
    JEL: L91 L96
    Date: 2014–11
  5. By: George Bulman; Robert W. Fairlie
    Abstract: A substantial amount of money is spent on technology by schools, families and policymakers with the hope of improving educational outcomes. This paper explores the theoretical and empirical literature on the impacts of technology on educational outcomes. The literature focuses on two primary contexts in which technology may be used for educational purposes: i) classroom use in schools, and ii) home use by students. Theoretically, ICT investment and CAI use by schools and the use of computers at home have ambiguous implications for educational achievement: expenditures devoted to technology necessarily offset inputs that may be more or less efficient, and time allocated to using technology may displace traditional classroom instruction and educational activities at home. However, much of the evidence in the schooling literature is based on interventions that provide supplemental funding for technology or additional class time, and thus favor finding positive effects. Nonetheless, studies of ICT and CAI in schools produce mixed evidence with a pattern of null results. Notable exceptions to this pattern occur in studies of developing countries and CAI interventions that target math rather than language. In the context of home use, early studies based on multivariate and instrumental variables approaches tend to find large positive (and in a few cases negative) effects while recent studies based on randomized control experiments tend to find small or null effects. Early research focused on developed countries while more recently several experiments have been conducted in developing countries.
    JEL: I20 I24
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Laya, Andres (Department of Communication Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology); Jocevski, Milan (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology & Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano); Ghezzi, Antonio (Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Politecnico di Milano); Markendahl, Jan (Department of Communication Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Bringing up services based on Information and Communication Technologies shows to be a complex process for everyone involved in it. Dynamic ecosystem of businesses participating in creation of the value proposition of the services requires a specific way of reasoning and simplified guidance to implementation. We discuss how industrial relationships evolve in terms of value dimensions, through a lens of a business model. This discussion has been done through four streams of literature starting from Activities, Resources and Actors Model and value literature, and continues through value networks and ecosystem literature, so as to round up in discussion on different views on business models. Out of this discussion a conceptual framework has been presented. On the other side, we present basis for the division of the analysis of services based on ICT into two different views and actually offer a table of separation of concerns (into these two views).
    Keywords: Ecosystem; Business Model; ICT services; Value dimensions; Relationships
    JEL: L80 M15
    Date: 2016–05–10
  7. By: Sander van Veldhuizen; Benedikt Vogt; Bart Voogt
    Abstract: We use Google searches of the word “mortgage†to explain housing transactions in the Netherlands in the period from 2004 until 2015. Our estimates indicate that Google searches of the previous months are significantly positively associated with housing transactions in the current month. This provides evidence that internet search data can provide information about real market behaviour.
    JEL: E2 E27 R2 R3
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Jacinta C. Nwachukwu (Coventry University)
    Abstract: This study assesses the synergy effects of governance in mobile phone penetration for inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa with data for the period 2000-2012 by employing a battery of interactive estimation techniques, namely: Fixed effects (FE), Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) and Tobit regressions. Concepts of political (voice & accountability and political stability/no violence), economic (government effectiveness and regulation quality) and institutional (corruption-control and rule of law) governance are employed. The following findings are established. First, the previously apparent positive correlation between mobile phones and inclusive development can be extended to a positive effect. Second, whereas political governance is overwhelmingly not significant across estimated models, average effects from economic governance are higher relative to institutional governance. Third, on the synergy effects from interactions between mobile phones and governance variables, whereas none are apparent in FE regressions, there are significant synergy effects in GMM and Tobit estimations, notably, from: (i) regulation quality in the former and (ii) political stability, voice & accountability and rule of law in the latter. Fourth, there is consistent evidence of convergence in inclusive human development. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Mobile phones; governance; inclusive human development
    JEL: G20 I10 I32 O40 P37
    Date: 2016–01
  9. By: Georgios Alaveras (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Estrella Gomez Herrera (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Bertin Martens (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The main objective of the present study is to measure the extent of market segmentation for video-on-demand (VoD) services in the EU. We examine access to VoD catalogues in other countries and compare the content of film catalogue available across countries. Using various sources of data on VoD services we find that cross-border access to VoD services in the EU28 is extremely limited at 1.9% of available VoD services in the EU. Cross-border availability of film titles reaches 16.8%. Netflix performs better with 31% cross-border availability. Cross-border availability in VoD catalogues remains far below the 40% availability observed in digital film downloads, 80% in digital music downloads and 93% in e-books catalogues. Even within EU Member States, the VoD market is very fragmented with catalogue overlaps between local VoD providers in the order of 30-50% only. Consumers incur high switching costs to access a wider variety of products in this segmented market.
    Keywords: video on demand, geographical market fragmentation, copyright, digital media, language barriers, online film
    JEL: F15
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: María del Mar López Guerrero (Universidad de Malaga, Andalucia Tech); Gema López Guerrero (Universidad de Malaga, Andalucia Tech)
    Abstract: Chemistry is a subject many students prefer to avoid, even if they have an interest in science, because of its reputation for lowering grade point averages. However, it isn't as bad as it seems.Chemistry has a reputation as being a difficult subject to master, but there are steps you can take to improve your chances of success. The key to learning chemistry is to take responsibility for your own learning. No one can learn chemistry for you. If you want to be good at something, you have to practice it. If you review chemistry every day and work problems every day, you'll find a rhythm that will make it easier to retain the material and learn new concepts.Furthermore, in order to improve the Chemistry learning, it was thought that the use of ICTs could be very beneficial. In general, ICT can help to increase participation of students in the area and would improve the direct intervention of the students which motivates their learning. On the other hand, every student has smartphone and internet access.After it was identified student misconceptions and misinterpretation in Chemistry for engineering students as they are attempting to interpret and explain the chemical processes. Oxidation-reduction reactions were identified the most difficult concept, following by solubility and formulation. The objective was to carry out a proposal for teaching contents of chemistry using didactic resources for virtual environment, the use of a simulation that lets students to construct useful mental models in redox reactions; an online interactive periodic table of the elements was developed. Clicking on an element symbol in the periodic table to get facts for that element, discovering the elements, the properties and trends. Videos of solubility in which could be possible to watch the reactions.Results. The used ITC demonstrated that students significantly increased the number scientifically acceptable ideas in student´s conceptions of science due to the fact that the use of ITC has demonstrated that allows them to practise.Conclusion. The use of either interactive table or the simulation or videos can be helpful in improving problem solving. This encourages students to develop new ideas about science, and allows them to create a memory from viewing animations, leading to confirmation or modification of the existing mental model.
    Keywords: ICT, Chemistry, simulations
    JEL: I21 I20 I23
  11. By: Smaniotto Costa, Carlos; Bahillo Martínez, Alfonso; Álvarez, Fernando J.; ?uklje Erjavec, Ina; Menezes, Marluci; Montserrat Pallares-Barbera

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