nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2016‒04‒09
seven papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. The emergence of a "digital underclass" in Great Britain and Sweden: changing reasons for digital exclusion By Ellen J. Helsper; Bianca C. Reisdorf
  2. Liberation Technology: Mobile Phones and Political Mobilization in Africa By Marco Manacorda; Andrea Tesei
  4. High involvement management practices, technology uses, work motivation and job search behaviour By MARTIN Ludivine
  5. Business models, diffusion of innovation and imitation: The case of online press By LYUBAREVA, Inna; ROCHELANDET, Fabrice; ETIENNE, Jean-Michel
  6. Effciency and equilibrium in network games: An experiment By Edoardo Gallo; Chang Yan; ;
  7. Are Jobs More Polarized in ICT Firms? By Böckerman, Petri; Laaksonen, Seppo; Vainiomäki, Jari

  1. By: Ellen J. Helsper; Bianca C. Reisdorf
    Keywords: Digital divide; digital inclusion; Great Britain; Internet non-use; longitudinal research; motivation; social inequality; survey; Sweden
    JEL: L91 L96
    Date: 2016–04–03
  2. By: Marco Manacorda (Queen Mary University of London, CEP (LSE), CEPR & IZA); Andrea Tesei (Queen Mary University of London & CEP (LSE);)
    Abstract: Can digital information and communication technology (ICT) foster mass political mobilization? We use a novel geo-referenced dataset for the entire African continent between 1998 and 2012 on the coverage of mobile phone signal together with geo-referenced data from multiple sources on the occurrence of protests and on individual participation in protests to bring this argument to empirical scrutiny. We find that mobile phones are instrumental to mass mobilization during economic downturns, when reasons for grievance emerge and the cost of participation falls. Estimated effects are if anything larger once we use an instrumental variable approach that relies on differential trends in coverage across areas with different incidence of lightning strikes. The results are in line with insights from a network model with imperfect information and strategic complementarities in protest provision. Mobile phones make individuals more responsive to both changes in economic conditions - a mechanism that we ascribe to enhanced information - and to their neighbors' participation - a mechanism that we ascribe to enhanced coordination. Empirically both effects are at play, highlighting the channels through which digital ICT can alleviate the collective action problem.
    Keywords: Mobile phones, Collective action, Africa, Geo-referenced data
    JEL: D70 O55 L96
    Date: 2016–03
  3. By: Rúben Meireles (Faculty of Economics, University of Porto); Pedro Campos (Faculty of Economics, University of Porto and LIAAD INESC TEC)
    Abstract: Faster internet connections are breaking most of the geographic barriers. At the same time, the huge digital content that have been generated in last years is motivating new forms of digital piracy. We know that piracy of copyrighted digital material has a huge impact on countries’ economy, being a major issue for the whole society and not only for content creators. The purpose of this paper is to investigate digital piracy intention. For that purpose, we have expanded the framework of the theory of planned behavior using the utility theory, the deterrence theory and other relevant constructs. Using data from students of a Portuguese university and high school, a sample of 590 questionnaires has been collected. Two models were developed and analyzed using structural equation modeling. The first considers the full sample (Full Model), while the second considers only those who had pirated (Pirate Model). The pirate model confirmed the existence of a significant and strong relation between past behavior and intention towards digital piracy.
    Keywords: Information and Internet Services; Computer Software, Digital Piracy, Theory of Planned Behavior, Deterrence Theory, Structural Equation Modeling
    JEL: L86
    Date: 2016–03
  4. By: MARTIN Ludivine
    Abstract: Nowadays, employers face the mobility of the most productive employees and large costs induced by labour turnover. This paper examines the impact of two management policies on employees’ motivation on one hand and their quitting behaviour on the other hand. These two policies are i) the participation in High Involvement Management (HIM) practices and ii) the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Employees’ motivation, which is at the heart of this question, has different facets. Some employees exert effort because their job is in line with their values, gives opportunities for personal growth and pleasure in performing tasks. Alternatively, employees may simply be driven by rewards or compulsion. Using recent survey-based data of employees, the results show that the HIM and ICT strategies are positively related to the two types of work motivation (personal growth and rewards/compulsion). However, these strategies affect differently the likelihood of staff to remain or leave their current employer by type of motivation. While the HIM strategy reduces the risk that employees motivated by personal growth search for another job, it encourages on the contrary those who are motivated by rewards or compulsion to leave. ICT appear to play no role in employee retention.
    Keywords: on-the-job search; work motivation; high involvement management practices; information and communication technologies
    JEL: J28 J81 M54
    Date: 2016–03
  5. By: LYUBAREVA, Inna; ROCHELANDET, Fabrice; ETIENNE, Jean-Michel
    Abstract: A body of literature shows the destabilizing role of ICT and change from analogue to digital in the cultural industries in general, and in press industry in particular. This literature demonstrates that constant experimentation and innovation in the area of organizational arrangements and business models (BM) has become a key competitive advantage. As a result, traditional BMs, which were dominant and stable in different cultural industries (such as media, film, music, publishing etc), have given rise to a multiplicity of arrangements in business management and the emergence of disruptive and innovative business models, which often successfully coexist in the same market segment. According to this view point, strategic and structural change is necessarily driven by competition or the need for efficiency. However alternative theories predicts that in depending on the industry structural characteristic, only early adopters of innovation may be driven by a desire to improve performance, whereas as an innovation spreads and organizational field becomes more established, there may be a push towards homogenization. The case of the French press is quite symptomatic of that standpoint. From the empirical analysis of 100 press websites observed over the period from 2004 to 2014, the paper substantiates the convergence process towards three dominant clusters of online BMs: “A minima Digital”, “Freebie Plus” and “Exploring Leaders”. Using a Random Effects Probit econometric model the paper puts forward that this isomorphic process is mainly due to the fact that mimetic behavior over-weights search for performance in French press.
    Keywords: Online Press, Business Models, Innovation of Service, Imitation, Isomorphism
    JEL: L82 M2 O33
    Date: 2016–01
  6. By: Edoardo Gallo; Chang Yan; ;
    Abstract: The tension between efficiency and equilibrium is a central feature of economic systems. In many contexts, social networks mediate this trade-off: an individual's network position determines equilibrium play, and social relations allow coordination on an efficient norm. We examine this trade-o in a network game with a unique Nash equilibrium, but such that agents can achieve a higher payoff by following a "collaborative norm". Subjects establish and maintain a collaborative norm in the circle, but the norm weakens with the introduction of one asymmetric node in the wheel. In complex and asymmetric networks of 15 and 21 nodes, the norm disappears and subjects' play converges to Nash on every node. We provide evidence that subjects base their decisions on their degree, rather than the overall network structure. Methodologically, the paper shows the capabilities of UbiquityLab: a novel platform to conduct interactive experiments online with a large number of participants.
    Keywords: network, online experiment, network game, strategic complements.
    JEL: C99 D03 D85 Z13
    Date: 2015–02–09
  7. By: Böckerman, Petri (Labour Institute for Economic Research); Laaksonen, Seppo (University of Helsinki); Vainiomäki, Jari (University of Tampere)
    Abstract: We perform decompositions and regression analyses that test the routinization hypothesis and implied job polarization at the firm level. Prior studies have focused on the aggregate, industry or local levels. Our results for the abstract and routine occupation groups are consistent with the routinization hypothesis at the firm level. The observed changes are linked to ICT adoption. Thus, disappearing middle-level (routine) work can be traced to firm-level technological change.
    Keywords: skill-biased technological change, job polarization, routinization
    JEL: J23 J24 J31 O33
    Date: 2016–03

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