nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2015‒08‒19
six papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
Universität Wien

  1. ICT for the employability and integration of immigrants in the European Union: Results from a survey in three Member States By Francisco Lupiañez; Cristiano Codagnone; Rosa Dalet
  2. Keeping up with the e-Joneses: Do online social networks raise social comparisons? By Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco
  3. A crowdsourcing solution to collect e-commerce reverse flows in metropolitan areas By Shenle Pan; Chao Chen; Ray Y. Zhong
  4. Information and Price Dispersion. Theory and Evidence By Dieter Pennerstorfer; Philipp Schmidt-Dengler; Nicolas Schutz; Christoph R. Weiss; Biliana Yontcheva
  5. Use of internal information, external information acquisition and customs underreporting By Cyril CHALENDARD
  6. Technology, Opportunity & Access: Understanding Financial Inclusion in the U.S. By Nathaniel Karp; Boyd Nash-Stacey

  1. By: Francisco Lupiañez (Open Evidence); Cristiano Codagnone (Open Evidence); Rosa Dalet (Block de ideas)
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of a survey on the role played by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in supporting the employability and integration of immigrants in Europe. 1,500 immigrants in 3 Member States (Bulgaria, the Netherlands, and Spain) were interviewed face-to-face from the end of 2012 to mid-2013 to identify their ICT skills, access and usage, with the aim to identify the role of ICT for their employability and integration in the host country and comparing connected and non-connected migrants. The statistical analysis carried out in this survey revealed that migrants differed in ICT usage, employability and integration in the 3 countries surveyed. Moreover, age, education, employment status, and type of occupation were clear sources of digital inequalities. The findings point to the implications for policies that aim to take advantage of the potential offered by immigration in the European Union, such as digital inclusion policies address specific groups of migrants (older and unemployed), supporting public libraries and other forms of public access, promoting digital skills, and migrant integration policies to raise awareness about how the Internet can help migrants to become more actively engaged in society.
    Keywords: Digital single market, connected, immigrants, skills, employability, digital, competences, migration, integration, e-inclusion, digital agenda, information and communication technologies
    JEL: I00 I18
    Date: 2015–07
  2. By: Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco
    Abstract: Online social networks such as Facebook disclose an unprecedented volume of personal information amplifying the occasions for social comparisons. We test the hypothesis that the use of social networking sites (SNS) increases people’s dissatisfaction with their income. After addressing endogeneity issues, our results suggest that SNS users have a higher probability to compare their achievements with those of others. This effect seems stronger than the one exerted by TV watching, it is particularly strong for younger people, and it affects men and women in a similar way.
    Keywords: social networks; social networking sites; social comparisons; satisfaction with income; relative deprivation.
    JEL: D3 D31 O33 Z13
    Date: 2015–07–31
  3. By: Shenle Pan (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Chao Chen (Chongqing University - Chongqing University (CHINA)); Ray Y. Zhong (HKU - The University of Hong Kong - University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: On the forward side, the growth of E-commerce in recent years substantially generates additional packets and parcels for distribution; meanwhile, on the reverse side, collecting returned goods is also becoming a preoccupation of sustainability, especially in metropolitan areas. Inspired by the concepts of crowdsourcing and the Physical Internet, in this paper, we propose an innovative solution that seeks to exploit the extra loading capacity and constant mobility from taxis in metropolitan areas to collect and delivery the e-commerce returns from final consumption points back to retailers. We assume that, on one hand, e-retailers will have incentive to outsource this task; on the other hand, taxi drivers will also be motivated because they can earn a little extra money from the shipments that they have fulfilled. As an alternative to the traditional ways, the solution proposed is more sustainable because it could simultaneously reduce the economical (pickup and transportation costs), environmental (CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, traffic congestion in city), and social (the wastes of the impulse buying, reduced incitation of online shopping) impacts resulted from reverse flows management in metropolitan areas. As the first qualitative and quantitative study of the concept, this paper uses open databases of taxi GPS traces and locations of shops in a large city in China for investigating the feasibility and viability of the solution proposed. Two collection strategies are proposed and evaluated by an optimization-based simulation model. The results generate several useful insights to the implementability and managerial issues of the concept.
    Date: 2015–05–10
  4. By: Dieter Pennerstorfer (WIFO); Philipp Schmidt-Dengler (WIFO); Nicolas Schutz; Christoph R. Weiss; Biliana Yontcheva
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between information and price dispersion in the retail gasoline market. We first show that the clearinghouse models in the spirit of Stahl (1989) generate an inverted-U relationship between information and price dispersion. We construct a new measure of information based on precise commuter data from Austria. Regular commuters can freely sample gasoline prices on their commuting route, providing us with spatial variation in the share of informed consumers. We use detailed information on gas station level price to construct various measures of price dispersion. Our empirical estimates of the relationship are in line with the theoretical predictions.
    Date: 2015–08–10
  5. By: Cyril CHALENDARD
    Abstract: This paper identifies opportunities for improving the performance of revenue-collection authorities. To detect and combat fraud, we argue that revenue-collection authorities should, notably in the absence of reliable third-party information, exploit non-usual sources of information. Specifically, our micro-level study of customs evasion provides evidence that using any internal or external available source of information facilitates customsenforcement. Estimates highlight that exploiting historical data and/or relying on an information provider - a pre-shipment inspection company - significantly reduces evasion in Cameroon. The potential endogeneity of pre-shipment inspections is addressed by using instrumental variables. Results are robust to a variety of additional checks.
    Keywords: Use of internal information, External Information acquisition, Customs enforcement, Tax evasion, Pre-shipment inspections.
    JEL: O17 F13 K42 H83 H26
    Date: 2015–07
  6. By: Nathaniel Karp; Boyd Nash-Stacey
    Abstract: Although the U.S. is regarded as having a well-developed and deep financial system, financial inclusion continues to be a challenge for many communities and households. Using four databases with over 4 million data points and a PCA methodology, we developed the FIMI for 251 Metropolitan Statistical Areas, to help us identify the main determinants behind financial inclusion
    Keywords: Banks , Digital economy , Economic Analysis , Financial Inclusion , Financial regulation , Regional Analysis , Research , USA , Working Paper
    JEL: D1 D6 I3 G21 R10 R20
    Date: 2015–07

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