nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2013‒06‒04
ten papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
University Vienna

  1. The Use of ICT for the Assessment of Key Competences By Christine Redecker
  2. Institutions, competition and regulation: Intellectual property and innovation By Tucker, C.E.
  3. Effectiveness of whistleblower laws in combating corruption By Goel, Rajeev K.; Nelson, Michael A.
  4. Modeling ICT Perceptions and Views of Urban Front Liners By Galit Cohen-Blankenstain; Peter Nijkamp; Kees van Montfort
  5. The Industry and Policy Context for Digital Games for Empowerment and Inclusion: Market Analysis, Future Prospects and Key Challenges in Videogames, Serious Games and Gamification. By James Stewart; Gianluca Misuraca
  6. Comparing Innovation Performance in the EU and the USA: Lessons from Three ICT Sub-Sectors By Simon Forge; Colin Blackman; Itzhak Goldberg; Federico Biagi
  7. Survival or performance? Healthcare viewed through organization, information management, and personnel By Kauhanen, Antti; Kulvik, Martti; Maijanen, Sirpa; Martikainen, Olli; Ranta, Paula; Kulvik, Silja
  8. Auszug aus der Modellierung des IT-Dienstleistungsmodells "proITS" am Beispiel der Struktur von Forschungseinrichtungen und deren IT-Service By Lemke, Claudia
  9. The Small World of 9/11 and the Implications for Network Dismantlement Strategies By Virginie Masson; Kelsey Wilkins
  10. If Technology Has Arrived Everywhere, Why Has Income Diverged? By Comin, Diego; Mestieri, Marti

  1. By: Christine Redecker (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This report assesses current trends in the area of ICT for learning and assessment in view of their value for supporting the assessment of Key Competences. Based on an extensive review of the literature, it provides an overview of current ICT-enabled assessment practices, with a particular focus on more recent developments that support the holistic assessment of Key Competences for Lifelong Learning in Europe. The report presents a number of relevant cases, discusses the potential of emerging technologies, and addresses innovation and policy issues for eAssessment. It considers both summative and formative assessment and considers how ICT can lever the potential of more innovative assessment formats, such as peer-assessment and portfolio assessment and how more recent technological developments, such as Learning Analytics, could, in the future, foster assessment for learning. Reflecting on the use of the different ICT tools and services for each of the eight different Key Competences for Lifelong Learning it derives policy options for further exploiting the potential of ICT for competence-based assessment.
    Keywords: Europe 2020 Strategy, Rethinking Education, eAssessment, Computer-Based Assessment (CBA), competence-based assessment, key competences, 21st century skills.
    JEL: I2 I21 I28
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Tucker, C.E. (Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economics Center)
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Goel, Rajeev K. (BOFIT); Nelson, Michael A. (BOFIT)
    Abstract: Whistleblower laws are becoming important governance tools in both the public and private sectors. To examine the effectiveness of whistleblower laws and their awareness, this study creates a unique internet-based measure of awareness about whistleblower laws and provisions, focusing on the United States. Placing the analysis within the larger corruption literature, our results show that greater whistleblower awareness results in more observed corruption and this holds across specifications. Internet awareness of whistleblower laws appears to be more effective at exposing corruption than the quantity and quality of whistleblower laws themselves.
    Keywords: corruption; whistleblowers; law enforcement; internet; United States
    JEL: H70 K42
    Date: 2013–05–13
  4. By: Galit Cohen-Blankenstain (Harvard University); Peter Nijkamp (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Kees van Montfort (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper offers both a conceptual and an operationalmodel that aims to map out the causes and implicationsof ICT perceptions and views of urban policy makersand/or administrative officials (denoted as urban frontliners). This is followed by the presentation of an opera-tional path model, viz. a linear structural equations model(Lisrel). The model serves to describe and test the rela-tionships between perceptions of the city, policy makers'beliefs about ICT and the associated urban ICT policy.According to the model, respondents that perceive theircity as having many urban functions (e.g., commercialcentre, service centre, higher education centre) have moreawareness to various ICT tools and are likely to consider amultiplicity of ICT measures as relevant to their city. Re-spondents that consider their city as having severe bottle-necks (e.g., traffic congestion, housing shortage) are lesslikely to think of ICT measures and ICT -related goals asrelevant to their city, nor that the municipality impactssignificantly on ICT in the city. Furthermore, respondentsthat perceive their city as suffering from many socio-economic problems (unemployment, ageing population,industrial decline and so on), are likely to consider manyICT tools as relevant to their city, although they have a lowawareness of the specific tools to be deployed. Finally,respondents who believe that ICT will affect significantly(and positively) the city and its administration, tend to at-tach a high municipal influence on ICT, and consider manyICT initiatives as relevant to their city.
    Keywords: ICT; perceptions; Lisrel model; urban decisionmakers
    JEL: R00
  5. By: James Stewart (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Gianluca Misuraca (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The effective use of digital games for empowerment and social inclusion (DGEI) of people and communities at risk of exclusion will be shaped by, and may influence the development of a range of sectors that supply products, services, technology and research. The principal industries that would appear to be implicated are the 'videogames' industry, and an emerging 'serious games' industry. The videogames industry is an ecosystem of developers, publishers and other service providers drawn from the interactive media, software and broader ICT industry that services the mainstream leisure market in games, The 'serious games' industry is a rather fragmented and growing network of firms, users, research and policy makers from a variety of sectors. These actors are trying to develop knowledge, products, services and a market for the use of digital games and products inspired by digital games for a range of non-leisure applications. This report provides a summary of the state of play of these industries, their trajectories and the challenges they face. It also analyses the contribution these actors could make to exploiting digital games for empowerment and social inclusion. Finally, it explores existing policy towards activities in these industries and markets, and draws conclusions as to the future policy relevance of engaging with them to support innovation and uptake of effective digital game-based approaches to empowerment and social inclusion.
    Keywords: Social inclusion, innovation, videogames, games, serious games, education
    JEL: I38 I24 I12 J24 L83 L86 L88
    Date: 2012–11
  6. By: Simon Forge (SCF Associates Ltd); Colin Blackman (Camford Associates); Itzhak Goldberg (CASE (Center for Social and Economic Research)); Federico Biagi (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The objective of the study is to document the existence of innovation gaps between the EU and its main competitors in specific ICT sub-sectors – namely web services, industrial robotics and display technologies –and to explore the role of government policies in Europe’s future needs for innovation in information and communication technologies (ICT) through a comparison with the USA and Asian countries. Our analysis shows that rather than there being a simple innovation gap with the EU lagging behind the USA, a more nuanced picture emerges in which firms in different countries have strengths in different sub-sectors and in different parts of the value chain. A key lesson from the analysis of the three subsectors is the critical importance of higher education, particularly elite university research, and of local networks as generated by clusters. Governments can also encourage innovation through appropriate intellectual property and competition laws and, more generally, through the development of a business environment conducive to innovation. Finally, Governments can have a very important role through the funding of early-stage innovation
    Keywords: ICT, Innovation policy, Industrial policy
    JEL: L5 L6 L8
    Date: 2013–03
  7. By: Kauhanen, Antti; Kulvik, Martti; Maijanen, Sirpa; Martikainen, Olli; Ranta, Paula; Kulvik, Silja
    Abstract: This report is an overview to the presentations and discussions in the seminar Survival or performance? Healthcare viewed through organization, information management, and personnel held on 3.9.2012. The seminar provided an interdisciplinary forum for the question how the health care system may overcome its present challenges
    Keywords: health care, work organization, processes, information technology
    JEL: I11 I12 M15
    Date: 2013–05–23
  8. By: Lemke, Claudia
    Abstract: Auch in Forschungseinrichtungen gewinnt die Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie im Wertschöpfungsprozess zunehmend an Bedeutung. Dies bedingt eine qualitativ hochwertige Entwicklung bedarfsgerechter IT-Leistungen für alle Geschäftsprozesse in diesen Einrichtungen. Der Wandel zu einer ganzheitlichen serviceorientierten IT-Leistungserstellung und -produktion kann durch ein geeignetes IT-Dienstleistungsmanagement unterstützt werden. Das working paper beschreibt auf der Basis des im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes praxisorientiertes IT-Dienstleistungsmanagement für kleine IT-Organisationen in Forschungseinrichtungen entwickelten Modells proITS deren erste beispielhafte Anwendung. Die Erarbeitung eines Ansatzes zur Systematisierung und Kategorisierung der Wertschöpfungsstrukturen und Geschäftsprozesse einer Forschungseinrichtung (Struktur-Domäne) bietet als standardisierbares Anforderungsmuster die Grundlagen zur Gestaltung (das Design und die konkrete Erstellung) von IT-Services und ITLeistungen (IT-Service.Domäne). Somit ist eine wesentliche und notwendige Bedingung für ein funktioniertes IT-Dienstleistungsmanagement erfüllt. Abschließend geht der Beitrag auf die Diskussion erster Wechselwirkungen zwischen den beiden Domänen ein und beschreibt weitere notwendige Überlegungen und Untersuchungen als Ausblick. -- Also for research institutions information technology is becoming increasingly important for value creation and competition. This situation requires the supply of high-quality IT services for business processes in these institutions. The alteration to an integrated service oriented framework for design and production of a customer oriented set of IT services can only driven by IT Service Management. This approach was developed within the research project Praxisorientiertes IT-Dienstleistungs-management für kleine IT-Organisationen von Forschungseinrichtungen. On the basis of this model, developed in the area of the research project mentioned above, this working paper describes an example of the first utilzation. A standardised pattern of requirements beginning from a premise of catogorisation and systemisation of structured, business processes of research institutes (in the structural domain) offers the basis for creation (design and realization) of IT services and IT management (in the IT service domain). Therefore, an essential requirement for a working IT service management has been fullfilled. Finally, the working paper dicuses the interactions between the two areas and describes further essential theorization and research.
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Virginie Masson (School of Economics, University of Adelaide); Kelsey Wilkins
    Abstract: We retraced the development of the network of those who participated in the 9/11 attacks through four stages: 1998-99, December 2000, May 2001 and August 2001. We established that throughout its development, the network had the characteristics of a small world. The implications of this result pointed towards an easily detectable but difficult to dismantle network due to its large clusters. We then assessed the performances of traditional measures of network strength and node centrality. We found that although betweenness surpasses all other measures for all stages, we could improve its performance. The new measure, termed the Jenga index, proved to perform best through all stages.
    Keywords: Terrorism, Counterterrorism, Social Network Analysis.
    JEL: F52 D74 D85
    Date: 2013–05
  10. By: Comin, Diego; Mestieri, Marti
    Abstract: If Technology Has Arrived Everywhere, Why Has Income Diverged? We study the lags with which new technologies are adopted across countries, and their long-run penetration rates once they are adopted. Using data from the last two centuries, we document two new facts: there has been convergence in adoption lags between rich and poor countries, while there has been divergence in penetration rates. Using a model of adoption and growth, we show that these changes in the pattern of technology diffusion account for 80% of the Great Income Divergence between rich and poor countries since 1820.
    Keywords: Technology Diffusion, Transitional Dynamics, Great Divergence
    JEL: E13 O14 O33 O41
    Date: 2013–05

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