nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2011‒07‒13
five papers chosen by
Walter Frisch
University Vienna

  2. The Protection of Children Online: Risks Faced by Children Online and Policies to Protect Them By OECD
  3. Trade in Information and Communications Technology and its Contribution to Trade and Innovation By Nobuo Kiriyama
  4. E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES READINESS FOR SMES By Farhad Nejadirani; Armin Rajabzadeh; Masoud Behravesh; Nayere Karegar
  5. Europe Lagging Behind in ICT Evolution: Patenting Trends of Leading ICT Companies By Timo Seppälä; Olli Martikainen

  1. By: Seyed Ahmad Hashemi (Vice-president for education, Islamic Azad University, Lamerd Branch, Iran)
    Abstract: Rapid changes in information age has faced all organizations and human based associations like education departments with challenges such as globalization, heavy competition, lack of supplies as well as unpredictable fluctuations. So to meet the new conditions education has to reform and use more information and communication technology, as ICT plays an important role in education. Thus for changing communications technology to public culture, a detailed analysis of this important subject with a systematic attitude in education, establishment of virtual schools, cooperation and coordination in all official organizations, private sectors and legislation is required. This essays discusses how the application of ICT would lead to efficiency in education systems, equal educational opportunities for students in all levels, quantitative and qualitative progress in education, creating a research spirit among teachers and students, enrichment of self-assessment, improvement of decision making and understanding knowledge, educating experts and finally the prevention of brain drain
    Keywords: Quality, technology, Information, Communication and brain drain
    JEL: M00
    Date: 2011–06
  2. By: OECD
    Abstract: As increasing numbers of children worldwide enjoy the benefits of the Internet, they also face a spectrum of risks to which they are more vulnerable than adults. This reports examines these risks as well as the policy responses of governments and other stakeholders to improve the protection of children online.
    Date: 2011–05–02
  3. By: Nobuo Kiriyama
    Abstract: Information and communications technology (ICT) has been seen as a major contributor to productivity growth and as a key tool for innovation. Trade liberalisation can play a role in encouraging ICT adoption by fostering competition and by reducing ICT prices. While the trade in ICT goods has more than doubled since the mid-1990s, the share of trade involving low and middle income countries has significantly increased, with China now being the largest trader. During the same period, tariff levels have declined thanks in part to the Information Technology Agreement (ITA), although substantial tariffs remain with respect to ICT goods not covered by the ITA and by those imposed by non-participants to the ITA. The multilateral trading system produced early successes in the ITA and the negotiations on basic telecommunications at the World Trade Organization (WTO), but the progress has since been more modest. Yet it provides opportunities to further trade liberalisation in ICT goods, both with respect to tariffs and to non-tariff issues, not least through the Doha negotiations.
    Keywords: multilateral trade negotiations, WTO, information and communication technologies, Information Technology Agreement, Non-agricultural market access
    JEL: F13 F14 L63 O24
    Date: 2011–06–28
  4. By: Farhad Nejadirani (Assistance Professor of Management, Faculty of Social Science, Department of Management, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran); Armin Rajabzadeh (Lecturer of Management, Faculty of Social Science, Marketing Management Department, Payam Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran, Iran); Masoud Behravesh (Economics Researcher, Faculty of Social Science, Department of Management, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran); Nayere Karegar (M.Sc Student of Economics Sciences, Department of Economics and Management, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran)
    Abstract: The use of the Internet along with a range of other information and communications technologies (ICT) is transforming how business is done locally and globally. The effects are sometimes dramatic in developed countries. There are even a growing number of examples of the use of ICT for electronic commerce (E-Commerce) in developing countries. The effects to date, though, are small compared to what is expected to occur in the next decades. Forecasters all agree that how business is done will be profoundly affected by ICT; they do not agree on what the exact effects will be. We do know that there are many ways businesses can benefit from electronic commerce – from serving current customers better and finding new customers and suppliers to improving the efficiency of their business processes. Businesses are also finding ways to expand the products and services they sell, how they sell them and how they charge for them. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME’s) in developing countries need to be able to figure out how, when, if, and where to use electronic commerce techniques to reap these gains. They face obstacles and constraints specific to the developing countries in which they operate such as higher costs to access the Internet and language barriers. For SMEs in developing countries E-Commerce poses the advantages of reduced information search costs and transactions cost (i.e., improving efficiency of operations- reducing time for payment, credit processing and the like). Surveys show that information on the following is most valuable to SMEs: customers and markets, product design, process technology, and financing source and terms. The Internet and other ICTs facilitate access to this information. In addition; the Internet allows automatic packaging and distribution of information (including customized information) to specific target groups
    Keywords: E-Commerce, Developing Countries, SME’s
    JEL: M00
    Date: 2011–06
  5. By: Timo Seppälä; Olli Martikainen
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine new Internet ecosystem strategies through compre-hensive OECD PATSTAT patent data analyses focusing on mobile operating system software firms. We also describe current patent disputes between mobile hardware firms and mobile operating system software firms in the US and their relevant intellectual property in order to highlight the changes and decisions made within current mobile value chains, which may then enable the further examination of strategic decisions of individual firms. Based on OECD PATSTAT and our descriptive analyses, we find that the latest strategic decisions made by the mobile hardware and operating system firms target industry-level competition on intellectual property and control over new industry convergence, whereas the value of hardware-based intellectual property is measured and evaluated against software and heuristics related intellectual property. This industry convergence includes the evolution of new ecosystems based on Apple, Google and Microsoft technologies that will change the role of several firms in the mobile value chain.
    Keywords: Apple, Microsoft, Google, Nokia, ICT, ecosystems, intellectual property, patenting
    JEL: L86 L8 L25
    Date: 2011–06–27

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