nep-ias New Economics Papers
on Insurance Economics
Issue of 2020‒03‒23
ten papers chosen by
Soumitra K. Mallick
Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management

  1. The Dependent Coverage Mandate Took a Bite Out of Crime By Fone, Zachary S.; Friedson, Andrew I.; Lipton, Brandy; Sabia, Joseph J.
  2. Изграждане на Националната здравноинформационна система - тенденции и правна рамка By Andreeva, Andriyana; Yolova, Galina
  3. Gender and resilience to health shocks: Evidence from financial and health diaries in rural Kenya and Nigeria By Janssens, Wendy; Kramer, Berber; Murphy, Mike
  4. Keystone ACO's Health Navigator Program to Identify and Close Care Gaps (Case Study) By Julia Embry; Kate D'Anello
  5. Digital technologies for financial inclusion of smallholder farmers: Needs assessment in three states of India By Ceballos, Francisco; Kannan, Samyuktha; Singh, Vartika; Kramer, Berber
  6. Does Student Loan Forgiveness Drive Disability Application? By Philip Armour; Melanie A. Zaber
  7. Why Do Banks Target ROE? By Joao A. C. Santos; George Pennacchi
  8. The Side Effects of Shadow Banking on Liquidity Provision By Teodora Paligorova; Joao A. C. Santos
  9. Promoting seed systems for stress-tolerant varieties at scale: Potential for bundling with insurance-advisory services By Cecchi, Francesco; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Omondi, Simon; Chegeh, Joseph; Tabalia, Amos; Kramer, Berber
  10. Household Savings in Central Eastern and Southeastern Europe : How Do Poorer Households Save? By Beckmann,Elisabeth

  1. By: Fone, Zachary S. (University of New Hampshire); Friedson, Andrew I. (University of Colorado Denver); Lipton, Brandy (San Diego State University); Sabia, Joseph J. (San Diego State University)
    Abstract: The Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate (DCM) induced approximately two million young adults to join parental employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) plans. This study is the first to explore the impact of the DCM on criminal arrests, a potentially important externality. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System, we find that the DCM induced an 11 percent reduction in criminal incidents involving arrestees ages 19 to 25, driven by property crime declines. An examination of the underlying mechanisms suggests that declines in large out-of-pocket expenditures for health care, increased educational attainment, and increases in parent-adult child cohabitation may explain these crime declines. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that the DCM generated approximately $3.1 billion in annual social benefits from crime reduction.
    Keywords: Affordable Care Act, Dependent Coverage Mandate, crime, arrests
    JEL: I13 I18 K14
    Date: 2020–02
  2. By: Andreeva, Andriyana; Yolova, Galina
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the legal framework of the process of establishing the National Health Information System as a crucial step in the introduction of e-healthcare. Following a national survey and taking into account common European policies, the trends and guidelines for creating system, its typical characteristics are pointed out. Based on the analysis, specific recommendations are made for correcting the legal texts in order to adequately and effectively implement them in the practice of applying the integrated system. The study found the following results, namely - the need to refine the texts of the Health Act, of the guideline for access to personal electronic health records, to specify hypotheses for providing information about insurance companies, to refine the term 'citizens' as persons, entitled to access and to consider replacing them with "insured persons" or "persons using medical services". On the other hand, it is accepted that the introduction and proper functioning of the system should meet a high level of data protection criteria, since it is indisputable that the practice of introducing electronic medical records directly affects all the specific guarantees provided to the patient in connection with the protection of privacy and access to personal data.
    Keywords: national health information system, principles, E-healthcare, health insurance
    JEL: K31
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Janssens, Wendy; Kramer, Berber; Murphy, Mike
    Abstract: Health shocks (unpredictable illnesses and injuries) are an important source of risk for individuals in developing countries. In the absence of formal financial products such as health insurance or health savings accounts, unexpected illness or injury can have severe consequences. The burden of responding to health shocks often falls disproportionately on women, since they usually act as primary caregivers in households, and as a result are responsible for managing the health of children or elderly dependents. Despite this, much research around the uptake of health insurance or other risk-management products focuses on households instead of individuals, without considering how gender may affect individual preferences for, and access to, these products. To address this issue, this policy brief uses a unique dataset on individuals from rural households in sub-Saharan Africa to demonstrate how the financial lives of men and women differ in important respects, and how these differences may have important implications for policy on universal access to health services.
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA, gender, resilience, health, health hazards, health services, households, women, men, savings, health shocks,
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Julia Embry; Kate D'Anello
    Abstract: Keystone Accountable Care Organization’s health navigator program uses community health assistants (CHAs) to identify and resolve beneficiary care gaps. The CHAs collaborate with beneficiaries’ care teams to conduct home visits and determine whether beneficiaries have unmet health and social needs.
    Keywords: Health Navigator, Keystone, Accountable Care Organization
  5. By: Ceballos, Francisco; Kannan, Samyuktha; Singh, Vartika; Kramer, Berber
    Abstract: Financial instruments such as savings, loans, and insurance are critical tools in managing risk for smallholder farmers across the developing world. Although smallholder farmers are disproportionately affected by adverse events, they are the least likely to have access to formal loans, insurance, or bank accounts, leaving them less prepared to manage weather and disaster risk. As the effects of climate change intensify, building resilience—the ability to mitigate, cope, and recover from shocks and stresses without compromising future welfare—is essential for reducing rural poverty and improving food and nutrition security.
    Keywords: INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, digital technology, technology, smallholders, farmers, data, mobile phones, insurance, willingness to pay, Picture-Based Insurance (PBI), financial inclusion,
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Philip Armour; Melanie A. Zaber
    Abstract: Student loan debt in the US exceeds $1.3 trillion, and unlike credit card and medical debt, typically cannot be discharged through bankruptcy. Moreover, this debt has been increasing: the share of borrowers leaving school with more than $50,000 of federal student debt increased from 2 percent in 1992 to 17 percent in 2014. However, federal student loan debt discharge is available for disabled individuals through the Department of Education's Total and Permanent Disability Discharge (TPDD) mechanism through certification of a total and permanent disability. In July 2013, the TPDD expanded to include receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) as an eligible category for discharge, provided medical improvement was not expected. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to SSI and SSDI applications, we find that SSDI and SSI application rates increased among respondents with student loans relative to rates among those without student loans. Our estimates suggest the policy change raised the probability of applying for SSDI or SSI in a given quarter among student loan-holders by 50% (baseline rate per quarter is approximately 0.3%), generally increasing SSI and SSDI awards. However, these induced award recipients were unlikely to receive the disability designation necessary to obtain student loan discharge. Given that the geographic distributions of student loan indebtedness and historical SSDI/SSI program participation differ, there are strong implications for both the size and location of SSDI and SSI beneficiaries. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of learning from policy changes in programs that interact with SSDI and SSI to better understand the drivers of disability program participation.
    JEL: D14 H52 H81 I22 I38 J14
    Date: 2020–02
  7. By: Joao A. C. Santos; George Pennacchi
    Abstract: Nonfinancial corporations focus on the growth in earnings per share (EPS) to benchmark their performance. Banks used to follow a similar practice, but starting in the late 1970s they began to emphasize return on equity (ROE) instead. In this blog post, we outline findings from our recent staff report, which argues that banks had an incentive to make this change when their charter values eroded owing to increased competition, and the incentive to change was magnified by risk-insensitive deposit insurance.
    Keywords: ROE
    JEL: G1 G2
  8. By: Teodora Paligorova (LA State University); Joao A. C. Santos
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the growth of shadow banking has transformed the way the U.S. banking system funds corporations. In this post, we describe how this growth has affected both the term loan and credit line businesses, and how the changes have resulted in a reduction in the liquidity insurance provided to firms.
    Keywords: liquidity; credit lines; term loans; shadow banks
    JEL: G2 G2 G3
  9. By: Cecchi, Francesco; Aredo, Samson Dejene; Kivuva, Benjamin; Omondi, Simon; Chegeh, Joseph; Tabalia, Amos; Kramer, Berber
    Abstract: Smallholder farmers may suffer losses from ex-treme weather events, pests and disease. This is expected to worsen in the face of climate change. Natural disasters are a threat to food security not only ex post, by inducing farmers to sell their as-sets, keep children out of school or borrow at high rates; they also threaten livelihoods ex ante, by discouraging farmers from investing in high-return practices and technologies (Elbers et al., 2007). Fortunately, significant progress has been made in the past two decades in developing and releasing seeds with genetic traits that are more tolerant to weather shocks, pests and disease. These im-provements in seed technology are offering prom-ising pathways to improve farmers’ adaptive ca-pacity, increasing investments and thereby agri-cultural productivity (Emerick et al., 2016).
    Keywords: KENYA, EAST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, insurance, seeds, advisory services, technology, Information and Communication Technologies (icts), smallholders, smartphones,
    Date: 2019
  10. By: Beckmann,Elisabeth
    Abstract: Based on a survey of households in 10 Central Eastern European and Western Balkan countries, this paper presents new and unique evidence on which households have savings and how they save. The paper shows that the percentage of savers is low, and savings are frequently informal. Formal savings are dominated by bank savings, and participation in contractual and capital market savings is very low in comparison to high-income countries. Poor households are significantly less likely to have any savings; income also has an effect, albeit smaller, on the choice of formal versus informal savings. With a high density of bank branches in Central Eastern European and Western Balkan countries lack of physical access to banks does not explain the lack of formal savings. Lack of trust in banks reduces the probability of formal savings, especially bank savings.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Capital Markets and Capital Flows,Capital Flows,Non Bank Financial Institutions,Mutual Funds,Financial Literacy,Insurance&Risk Mitigation,Social Funds and Pensions
    Date: 2019–02–19

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