nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2024‒04‒01
eight papers chosen by
Patrick Kampkötter, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

  1. Multi-Rater Performance Evaluations and Incentives By Ockenfels, Axel; Sliwka, Dirk; Werner, Peter
  2. Is there a glass ceiling for ethnic minorities to enter leadership positions? Evidence from a large-scale field experiment with over 12, 000 job applications By Mladen Adamovic; Andreas Leibbrandt
  3. Breaking Down Information Inequality: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Technology Industry By Choi, Jung Ho; Ierokomos, Surya; Sterling, Adina
  4. Nudges and Monetary Incentives: A Green Partnership? By Maris, Robbie; Zack, Dorner; Carlsson, Fredrik
  5. Unraveling the Determinants of Overemployment and Underemployment among Older Workers in Japan: A machine learning approach By ZHANG Meilian; YIN Ting; USUI Emiko; OSHIO Takashi; ZHANG Yi
  6. Innovation: The Bright Side of Common Ownership? By Miguel Antón; Florian Ederer; Mireia Giné; Martin C. Schmalz
  7. Will Artificial Intelligence Get in the Way of Achieving Gender Equality? By Carvajal, Daniel; Franco, Catalina; Isaksson, Siri
  8. The Class Ceiling in Politics By Folke, Olle; Rickne, Johanna

  1. By: Ockenfels, Axel (University of Cologne); Sliwka, Dirk (University of Cologne); Werner, Peter (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We compare evaluations of employee performance by individuals and groups of supervisors, analyzing a formal model and running a laboratory experiment. The model predicts that multi-rater evaluations are more precise than single-rater evaluations if groups rationally aggregate their signals about employee performance. Our controlled laboratory experiment confirms this prediction and finds evidence that this can indeed be attributed to accurate information processing in the group. Moreover, when employee compensation depends on evaluations, multi-rater evaluations tend to be associated with higher performance.
    Keywords: performance appraisal, calibration panels, group decision-making, real effort, incentives
    JEL: J33 M52
    Date: 2024–02
  2. By: Mladen Adamovic (Department of Huan Resource Management & Employment Relations, King’s Business School, King’s College London, 30 Aldwych, London WC2B 4BG, UK.); Andreas Leibbrandt (Department of Economics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.)
    Abstract: Ethnic inequalities are pervasive in the higher echelons of organizations. We conducted a field experiment to analyze if there is a glass ceiling for ethnic minorities entering leadership positions. We submitted over 12, 000 job applications, to over 4, 000 job advertisements, to investigate hiring discrimination against six ethnic groups for leadership positions. Drawing on implicit leadership theory, we argue that ethnic discrimination is particularly pronounced in the recruitment of leadership positions. Our findings confirm this hypothesis. We find that discrimination increases for leadership positions. Resumes with non-English names receive 57.4% fewer positive responses for leadership positions than identical resumes with English names. For non-leadership positions, ethnic minorities receive 45.3 percent fewer positive responses. Ethnic discrimination for leadership positions is even more pronounced when the advertised job requires customer contact. In contrast, ethnic discrimination in leadership positions is not significantly influenced by whether the organization’s job advertisement emphasizes individualism or learning, creativity, and innovation. These findings provide novel evidence of a glass ceiling for ethnic minorities to enter leadership positions.
    Keywords: Ethnic discrimination, hiring discrimination, resume study, field experiment, audit study
    JEL: C93 J23 J71 J78
    Date: 2024–03
  3. By: Choi, Jung Ho (Stanford U); Ierokomos, Surya (Stanford U); Sterling, Adina (Columbia U)
    Abstract: The under-representation of women in the technology industry has long been rec- ognized as a concern, and the provision of gender-specific information on job search platforms has emerged as a potential solution. In this research, we study how gender- specific information about employers may improve the search behavior of women on search platforms and lead to better job search outcomes. Through a randomized experiment on a professional job search platform, we find that the inclusion of gender-specific information in employee survey outcomes did not have the expected effects on job search. Instead of boosting job search activity, gender-specific information reduced user engagement on the job search platform, albeit less for women than men. In a follow-on abductive study, we discuss the multiple potential mechanisms affecting our results, and the implications of our findings within the existing literature.
    JEL: D63 D83 J16 J62 J64 M12 M21 M41
    Date: 2023–08
  4. By: Maris, Robbie (Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities, University College London (UCL)); Zack, Dorner (Department of Environmental Management, Lincoln University); Carlsson, Fredrik (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Shifting individual behaviour is an important tool for addressing environmental issues and there is a wide literature evaluating interventions to encourage pro-environmental behaviour. One important but under-researched area is the effect of combining interventions to affect behaviour. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of two interventions – monetary incentives and nudges – on nature restoration volunteering. We use a two-by-two treatment design to evaluate the individual and combined effects of the interventions in a field experiment setting. We find that the monetary incentive significantly increases volunteering behaviour, despite concerns incentives may crowd out motivation, but that nudging alone is ineffective at shifting behaviour. However, there are considerable positive synergies between the monetary incentive and nudge. The monetary incentive becomes more than twice as effective when it is combined with a nudge. We find support for our theoretical prediction that this synergy arises because the nudge reduces motivational crowding out effects from the incentive. Our results have important policy implications, showing that concerns around motivation crowding out from monetary incentives could be mitigated by simple, low-cost nudges.
    Keywords: Field experiment; incentive; nature restoration; nudge; PEB; pro-environmental behaviour; synergy; volunteering
    JEL: C93 D91 Q57
    Date: 2024–03–11
  5. By: ZHANG Meilian; YIN Ting; USUI Emiko; OSHIO Takashi; ZHANG Yi
    Abstract: Overemployment and underemployment being widely existing phenomena, much less is known about their determinants for older workers. We innovatively employ machine learning methods to determine the important factors driving overemployment and underemployment among older workers in Japan. Those with better economic conditions, worse health, less family support, and unfavorable job characteristics are more likely to report overemployment, whereas increasing age, less disposable income, shorter current work hours, holding a job with a temporary nature, and low job and pay satisfaction are predictive to underemployment. Cluster analysis further shows that reasons for having work hour mismatches can be highly heterogeneous within both overemployed and underemployed groups. Subgroup analyses suggest room for pro-work policies among 65+ workers facing financial stress and lacking family support, female workers with unstable jobs and low spousal income, and salaried workers working insufficient hours.
    Date: 2024–03
  6. By: Miguel Antón; Florian Ederer; Mireia Giné; Martin C. Schmalz
    Abstract: Firms have inefficiently low incentives to innovate when other firms benefit from their inventions and the innovating firm therefore does not capture the full surplus of its innovations. We show that common ownership of firms mitigates this impediment to corporate innovation. By contrast, without technological spillovers, innovation has the effect of stealing market share from rivals; in that case, more common ownership reduces innovation. Empirically, the association between common ownership and innovation inputs and outputs decreases with product market proximity and increases with technology proximity. The sign and magnitude of the overall relationship between common ownership and corporate innovation thus varies considerably across the universe of firms depending on their relative proximity in technology and product market space. These results persist if we use only variation from BlackRock's acquisition of BGI. Our results inform the debate about the welfare effects of increasing common ownership among U.S. corporations.
    JEL: G30 L20 L40 O31
    Date: 2024–03
  7. By: Carvajal, Daniel (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Franco, Catalina (Center for Applied Research (SNF)); Isaksson, Siri (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: The promise of generative AI to increase human productivity relies on developing skills to become proficient at it. There is reason to suspect that women and men use AI tools differently, which could result in productivity and payoff gaps in a labor market increasingly demanding knowledge in AI. Thus, it is important to understand if there are gender differences in AI-usage among current students. We conduct a survey at the Norwegian School of Economics collecting use and attitudes towards ChatGPT, a measure of AI proficiency, and responses to policies allowing or forbidding ChatGPT use. Three key findings emerge: first, female students report a significantly lower use of ChatGPT compared to their male counterparts. Second, male students are more skilled at writing successful prompts, even after accounting for higher ChatGPT usage. Third, imposing university bans on ChatGPT use widens the gender gap in intended use substantially. We provide insights into potential factors influencing the AI adoption gender gap and highlight the role of appropriate encouragement and policies in allowing female students to benefit from AI usage, thereby mitigating potential impacts on later labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence; ChatGTP; gender; education; technology adoption
    JEL: I24 J16 J24 O33
    Date: 2024–03–14
  8. By: Folke, Olle (Department of Political Science, Uppsala University); Rickne, Johanna (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: Prior studies have documented that working-class individuals rarely become parliamentarians. We know less about when in the career pipeline to parliament workers disappear, and why. We study these questions using detailed data on the universe of Swedish politicians’ careers over a 50-year period. We find roughly equal-sized declines in the proportion of workers on various rungs of the political career ladder ranging from local to national office. We reject the potential explanations that workers lack political ambition, public service motivation, honesty, or voter support. And while workers’ average high school grades and cognitive test scores are lower, this cannot explain their large promotion disadvantage, a situation that we label a class ceiling. Organizational ties to blue-collar unions help workers advance, but only to lower-level positions in left-leaning parties. We conclude that efforts to improve workers’ numerical representation should apply throughout the career ladder and focus on intra-party processes.
    Keywords: political selection; social class; discrimination; careers in politics
    JEL: J71
    Date: 2023–12–21

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