nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2021‒01‒18
six papers chosen by
Patrick Kampkötter
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

  1. Employees' perceptions of management style and patterns of decision-making as contributing to organizational commitment By Keren Michael; Galit Yanay-Ventura
  2. Competition , Subjective Feedback, and Gender Gaps in Performance By Anna Lovasz; Boldmaa Bat-Erdene; Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska; Mariann Rigo; Agnes Szabo-Morvai
  3. The Distinct Impact of Information and Incentives on Cheating By Benistant, Julien; Galeotti, Fabio; Villeval, Marie Claire
  4. The Role of Employees' Age for the Relation between Job Autonomy and Sickness Absence By Grund, Christian; Rubin, Maike
  5. How Does Working-Time Flexibility Affect Workers' Productivity in a Routine Job? Evidence from a Field Experiment By Marie Boltz; Bart Cockx; Ana Diaz; Luz Salas
  6. The Social Side of Early Human Capital Formation: Using a Field Experiment to Estimate the Causal Impact of Neighborhoods By List, John A.; Momeni, Fatemeh; Zenou, Yves

  1. By: Keren Michael (The Max Stern Yezreel Valley Academic College); Galit Yanay-Ventura (The Max Stern Yezreel Valley Academic College)
    Abstract: Different management styles obtain various organizational environments and diverse emotions among employees. Establishing a cooperative environment in the work place is one of the main tasks of managers in organizations today, which contribute to satisfaction and organizational commitment. High levels of organizational commitment diminish tardiness and absenteeism on one hand, and enhance performance and organizational efficiency of employees on the other hand. Aims: The study aims were twofold: 1) to examine how perceptions of employees about management styles and patterns of decision-making contribute to organizational commitment. 2) to examine the differences in the senses of organizational commitment between employee groups according to several organizational characteristics.Method: The sample included 300 service organizations' employees (43.3% men) aged 19?73 (Mage=31.5). All employees completed self-reported questionnaires measuring management style, shared decision-making, and organizational commitment.Results: A path analysis, based on multiple regressions, demonstrated that emotional commitment was predicted by employees' perceptions that there is a pattern of shared decision-making in the organization and that their supervisors use social management style. Similarly, pattern of shared decision-making was predicted by using social management style. In addition, higher levels of emotional commitment exist among men, older employees, full time employees, employees that hold a seniority status in the organization, and employees who are married with children.Conclusions and Implications: According to the results, managers should make efforts in fostering interpersonal relations and senses of cooperation, so that employees can be emotionally committed to the organization. Furthermore, maintaining long-term experienced employees with a proper status, instead of temporal employees, will lead to an emotional commitment to the organization and to attaining its achievements.
    Keywords: management style, decision-making, organizational commitment.
    JEL: D23 L20
  2. By: Anna Lovasz (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary and University of Washington Tacoma, 1900 Commerce Street, Tacoma, WA 98402-3100, USA); Boldmaa Bat-Erdene (Eotvos Lorand University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/a, Budapest, 1117 Hungary); Ewa Cukrowska-Torzewska (University of Warsaw, Faculty of Economic Sciences, D³uga 44/50, 00-241 Warsaw, Poland); Mariann Rigo (University of Düsseldorf, Institute of Medical Sociology, Moorenstr. 5, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany); Agnes Szabo-Morvai (Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Toth Kalman u. 4. Budapest, 1097 Hungary and University of Debrecen, Economics Department, Böszörményi út 132, Debrecen, 4032 Hungary)
    Abstract: We study gender differences in the impacts of competition and subjective feedback, using an online game with pop-up texts and graphics as treatments. We define 8 groups: players see a Top 10 leaderboard or not (competitiveness), and within these, they receive no feedback, supportive feedback, rewarding feedback, or "trash talk" (feedback type). Based on 5191 participants, we find that competition only increases the performance of males. However, when it is combined with supportive feedback, the performance of females also increases. This points to individualized feedback as a potential tool for decreasing gender gaps in competitive settings such as STEM fields.
    Keywords: Gender Gaps, Competition, Supervisory Feedback
    JEL: I20 J16 J24 M54
    Date: 2021–01
  3. By: Benistant, Julien (GATE, University of Lyon); Galeotti, Fabio (CNRS, GATE); Villeval, Marie Claire (CNRS, GATE)
    Abstract: We study a dynamic variant of the die-under-the-cup task where players can repeatedly misreport the outcomes of consecutive die rolls to earn more money, either under a non- competitive piece rate scheme or in a two-player competitive tournament. In this dynamic setting we test (i) whether giving continuous feedback (vs. final ex post feedback) on the opponent's reported outcome to both players encourages cheating behavior, and (ii) to what extent this influence depends on the incentive scheme in use (piece rate vs. tournament). We also vary whether the opponent is able to cheat or not. We find that people lie more when placed in a competitive rather than a non-competitive setting, but only if both players can cheat in the tournament. Continuous feedback on the counterpart's reports increases cheating under the piece-rate scheme but not in a competitive setting. Our results provide new insights on the role that feedback plays on cheating behavior in dynamic settings under different payment schemes, and shed light on the origins of the effect of competition on dishonesty.
    Keywords: dishonesty, feedback, peer effects, competitive incentives, experiment
    JEL: C92 M52 D83
    Date: 2021–01
  4. By: Grund, Christian (RWTH Aachen University); Rubin, Maike (RWTH Aachen University)
    Abstract: We investigate whether job autonomy is associated with employees' sickness absence. We can make use of the representative German Study of Mental Health at Work data. In line with our theoretical considerations, we do find evidence for an inverse relation between employees' job autonomy and days of sickness absence. This relation is only weakly mediated by job satisfaction and particularly relevant for more senior employees.
    Keywords: job autonomy, sickness absence, age, job satisfaction
    JEL: J81 M12
    Date: 2020–12
  5. By: Marie Boltz (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - UL - Université de Lorraine - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Bart Cockx (UGENT - Ghent University [Belgium], Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn - Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, CESifo - Center for Economic Studies and Ifo for Economic Research - CESifo Group Munich, UCL IRES - Institut de recherches économiques et sociales - UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain, ROA - Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada); Ana Diaz (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana); Luz Salas (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana)
    Abstract: How Does Working-Time Flexibility Affect Worker's Productivity in a Routine Job? Evidence from a Field Experiment Abstract: We conducted an experiment in which we hired workers under different types of contracts to evaluate how flexible working time affects on-the-job productivity in a routine job. Our approach breaks down the global impact on productivity into sorting and behavioral effects. We find that all forms of working-time flexibility reduce the length of workers' breaks. For part-time work, these positive effects are globally counterbalanced. Yet arrangements that allow workers to decide when to start and stop working increase global productivity by as much as 50 percent, 40 percent of which is induced by sorting.
    Abstract: Nous avons mené une expérience dans laquelle nous avons offert différents types de contrats à des candidats pour évaluer comment la flexibilité dans le temps de travail affecte la productivité au travail dans un poste avec des tâches routinières. Notre approche décompose l'impact global sur la productivité en l'effet de sélection ex ante et l'effet comportemental ex post durant le contrat. Nous constatons que toutes les formes de flexibilité du temps de travail réduit la durée des pauses prises par les employés. Pour le travail à temps partiel, ces effets positifs sont globalement contrebalancés. Par contre, le contrat qui permet aux employés de décider quand commencer et arrêter de travailler augmentent la productivité totale de près de 50%, dont 40% sont induits par un effet de sélection positive pour ce type de contrat.
    Keywords: flexible work arrangements,part-time work,productivity,labor market flexibility,work-life balance,horaires de travail flexibles,travail à temps partiel,productivité,flexibilité du marché du travail,équilibre entre vie professionnelle et vie privée
    Date: 2020–10
  6. By: List, John A. (University of Chicago); Momeni, Fatemeh (University of Chicago); Zenou, Yves (Monash University)
    Abstract: The behavioral revolution within economics has been largely driven by psychological insights, with the sister sciences playing a lesser role. This study leverages insights from sociology to explore the role of neighborhoods on human capital formation at an early age. We do so by estimating the spillover effects from a large-scale early childhood intervention on the educational attainment of over 2,000 disadvantaged children in the United States. We document large spillover effects on both treatment and control children who live near treated children. Interestingly, the spillover effects are localized, decreasing with the spatial distance to treated neighbors. Perhaps our most novel insight is the underlying mechanisms at work: the spillover effect on non-cognitive scores operate through the child's social network while parental investment is an important channel through which cognitive spillover effects operate. Overall, our results reveal the importance of public programs and neighborhoods on human capital formation at an early age, highlighting that human capital accumulation is fundamentally a social activity.
    Keywords: early education, social activity, neighborhood, field experiment, spillover effects, non-cognitive skills
    JEL: C93 I21 R1
    Date: 2020–12

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