nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2018‒04‒02
nine papers chosen by
Patrick Kampkötter
Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen

  1. Relative Performance Feedback to Teams By William Gilje Gjedrem; Ola Kvaløy
  2. Gender and Peer Effects on Performance in Social Networks By Julie Beugnot Marie Claire Villeval; Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix; Marie Claire Villeval
  3. Confidence in Knowledge or Confidence in the Ability to Learn: An Experiment on the Causal Effects of Beliefs on Motivation By Fischer, Mira; Sliwka, Dirk
  4. Investment in human capital in post-Soviet countries: Why are firms not training more? By Kupets, Olga
  5. Targeting the Key Player: An Incentive-Based Approach By Mohamed Belhaj; Frédéric Deroïan
  6. Leadership talent mindset as a predictor of the motivation and retention of junior correctional officials By Nicolene Barkhuizen; Mokhethi Paulus Matobako
  7. Can HRM Improve Schools' Performance? By Bryson, Alex; Stokes, Lucy; Wilkinson, David
  8. Working Hours, Work Identity and Subjective Wellbeing By Mark L. Bryan; Alita Nandi
  9. For better or worse? : How more flexibility in working time arrangements and fatherhood affect men's working hours in Germany By Wanger, Susanne; Zapf, Ines

  1. By: William Gilje Gjedrem; Ola Kvaløy
    Abstract: Between and within firms, work teams compete against each other and receive feedback on how well their team is performing relative to their benchmarks. In this paper we investigate experimentally how teams respond to relative performance feedback (RPF) at team level. We find that when subjects work under team incentives, then RPF on team performance increases the teams’ average performance by almost 10 percent. The treatment effect is driven by higher top performance, as this is almost 20% higher when the teams receive RPF compared to when the teams only receive absolute performance feedback (APF). The experiment suggests that top performers are particularly motivated by the combination of team incentives and team RPF. In fact, team incentives motivate significantly higher top performance than individual incentives when the team is exposed to RPF. We also find notable gender differences. Females respond negatively to individual RPF, but even more positively than males to team RPF.
    Keywords: teams, performance feedback, performance pay, experiment
    JEL: C91 M50 M52
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Julie Beugnot Marie Claire Villeval; Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix; Marie Claire Villeval
    Abstract: We investigate whether peer effects at work differ by gender and whether gender differences in peer effects -if any- depend on work organization. We develop a social network model with gender heterogeneity that we test in a real-effort laboratory experiment. We compare sequential networks in which information flows from peers to the worker and simultaneous networks where it disseminates bi-directionally. We identify strong gender differences as females disregard their peers’ performance in simultaneous networks, while males are influenced by peers in both networks. Females may perceive the environment in simultaneous networks as being more competitive than in sequential networks.
    Keywords: Gender, Peer effects, Social Networks, Work effort, Experiments
    JEL: C91 J16 J24 J31 M52
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Fischer, Mira (University of Cologne); Sliwka, Dirk (University of Cologne)
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that feedback about past performance has ambiguous effects on subsequent performance. We argue that feedback affects beliefs in different dimensions – namely beliefs about the level of human capital and beliefs about the ability to learn – and this may explain some of the ambiguous effects. We experimentally study the causal effects of an exogenously administered change in beliefs in both of these dimensions on the motivation to learn. We find that confidence in the ability to learn raises incentives, while confidence in the level of human capital lowers incentives for individuals with high levels of human capital.
    Keywords: economic experiments, confidence, human capital investment, motivation
    JEL: C91 D83 I21 J24
    Date: 2018–02
  4. By: Kupets, Olga
    Abstract: Using STEP employer surveys data in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Ukraine, this paper investigates how innovation, openness to international business contacts, use of computer at work and skills shortages affect employer-provided training in post-Soviet countries. It examines different types of training (less formal on-the-job training along with more formal in-house and external training) provided to white-collar or blue-collar workers. After controlling for a range of firm characteristics, we find a positive link between technological innovation and intensity of training of all types provided to white-collar workers that points to the technology-skills complementarity. Besides, the level of computer use at work is a significant determinant of the incidence and intensity of external training provided to white-collar and blue-collar workers.
    Keywords: employer-provided training, innovation, computerization, STEP employer survey, transition countries
    JEL: J24 M53 P36
    Date: 2018–03
  5. By: Mohamed Belhaj (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales); Frédéric Deroïan (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - ECM - Ecole Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales)
    Abstract: We consider a network game with local complementarities. A policymaker, aiming at minimizing or maximizing aggregate effort, contracts with a single agent on the network to trade effort change against transfer. The policymaker has to find the best agent and the optimal contract to offer. Our study shows that for all utilities with linear best-responses, it only takes two statistics about the position of each agent on the network to identify the key player: the Bonacich centrality and a weighted measure of the number of closed walks originating from the agent. We also characterize key players under linear quadratic utilities for various contractual arrangements.
    Keywords: key player,network,linear interaction,incentives,contract,limited budget
    Date: 2018–02
  6. By: Nicolene Barkhuizen (North-West University); Mokhethi Paulus Matobako (Southern Business School)
    Abstract: The main objective of this research was to determine whether leadership talent mind-set is a predictor of the motivation and retention of junior correctional officials. A cross-sectional research design was followed with a Talent Retention Measure, Employee Motivation Survey and Employee Retention questionnaire distributed among a sample of junior correctional officials (N=219). The results revealed that all talent management practices are currently poorly applied in correctional services. The respondents showed relatively high levels of intrinsic motivation. The results showed that all talent management practices were significantly related to motivation. Motivation moderated the relationship between talent management and turnover intentions of the participants. Recommendations are made.
    Keywords: Government, Junior Correctional Officials, Motivation, Talent Management, Retention
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2017–10
  7. By: Bryson, Alex (University College London); Stokes, Lucy (National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR)); Wilkinson, David (University College London)
    Abstract: Evidence on schools' performance is confined to comparisons across schools, usually based on value-added measures. We adopt an alternative approach comparing schools to observationally equivalent workplaces in the rest of the British economy using measures of workplace performance that are common across all workplaces. We focus on the role played by management practices in explaining differences in the performance of schools versus other workplaces, and performance across the schools' sector. We find intensive use of HRM practices is correlated with substantial improvement in workplace performance, both among schools and other workplaces. However, the types of practices that improve school performance are different from those that improve performance elsewhere in the economy. Furthermore, in contrast to the linear returns to HRM intensity in most workplaces, improvements in schools' performance are an increasing function of HRM intensity.
    Keywords: school performance, human resource management, matching, first differences
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2018–02
  8. By: Mark L. Bryan (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield); Alita Nandi (Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex)
    Abstract: Following theories of social and economic identity, we use representative data containing measures of personal identity to investigate the interplay of work identity and hours of work in determining subjective wellbeing (job satisfaction, job-related anxiety and depression, and life satisfaction). We find that work identity helps to explain wellbeing in two ways. First, for a given level of hours, having a stronger work identity is associated with higher wellbeing on most measures. Second, a strong work identity reduces the adverse effects of long hours working on some measures, notably job satisfaction and anxiety (for women) and on life satisfaction (for men). The associations of working hours and wellbeing confirm that work is a source of disutility, but these relationships are generally strengthened when controlling for identity – implying that individuals sort into jobs with work hours that match their identities. The effects of both work hours and identity are substantial relative to benchmark effects of health on wellbeing. Our work helps to rationalise recent findings in the literature on the effects of work hours and work hour preferences on wellbeing.
    Keywords: identity, wellbeing, working hours, job satisfaction, anxiety, depression
    JEL: J22 J28 J29 I31
    Date: 2018–02
  9. By: Wanger, Susanne (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Zapf, Ines (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "Many fathers want to spend more time with their children and engage in household, but most of them continue to work full-time after the birth of a child. To better combine work and family, flexible working time arrangements might play a crucial role for fathers. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and fixed-effects regression models, we investigate the impact of flexible working time arrangements on actual working hours of men and fathers. A change from fixed to flexible arrangements is associated with an increase in working hours, but it is smaller for fathers than for non-fathers. Becoming a parent and changing into flexitime or self-determined working hours within the same year is associated with a short-term decrease in working hours. The study shows that employee-oriented working time arrangements help fathers to better combine work and family, but the decrease in working hours is still small." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Arbeitszeitflexibilität, Arbeitszeitgestaltung, Beruf und Familie, Väter, Kinderbetreuung, Arbeitszeitentwicklung, Männer
    JEL: J22 J81
    Date: 2018–03–20

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