nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2011‒06‒18
eleven papers chosen by
Tommaso Reggiani
Universita' di Bologna

  1. Are Self-Employed Really Happier than Employees?: An Approach Modelling Adaptation and Anticipation Effects to Self-Employment and General Job Changes By Dominik Hanglberger; Joachim Merz
  2. Do Guns Displace Books? The Impact of Compulsory Military Service on Educational Attainment By Bauer, Thomas; Bender, Stefan; Paloyo, Alfredo; Schmidt, Christoph M.
  3. Career concerns : a human capital perspective By Camargos, Braz Ministério de; Pastorino, Elena
  4. The Skill Balancing Act: Determinants of and Returns to Balanced Skills By Elisabeth Bublitz; Florian Noseleit
  5. Intergenerational complementarities in education, endogenous public policy, and the relation between growth and volatility By Palivos, Theodore; Varvarigos, Dimitrios
  6. SPIRITUALITY IN THE WORK PLACE AND ITS IMPACTS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT By Dr. Kamran Janfeshan; Belal Panahy; Seid-Mehdi Veiseh; Farideh Kamari
  7. Assessing the Long-term Effects of Conditional Cash Transfers on Human Capital: Evidence from Colombia By Baez, Javier E.; Camacho, Adriana
  8. WORK ETHIC OF MALAYSIAN CIVIL SERVANTS By Othman Mohd. Yunus; Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim; Alwi Bin Shabuddin; Munira Mazlan
  11. Productivity and Local Workforce Composition By Maré, David. C; Fabling, Richard

  1. By: Dominik Hanglberger; Joachim Merz
    Abstract: Empirical analyses using cross-sectional and panel data found significantly higher levels of job satisfaction for self-employed than for employees. We argue that those estimates in previous studies might be biased by neglecting anticipation and adaptation effects. For testing we specify several models accounting for anticipation and adaptation to self-employment and job changes. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Survey (SOEP) we find that becoming self-employed is associated with large negative anticipation effects. In contrast to recent literature we find no specific long term effect of self-employment on job satisfaction. Accounting for anticipation and adaptation to job changes in general, which includes changes between employee jobs, reduces the effect of self-employment on job satisfaction by 70%. When controlling for anticipation and adaptation to job changes, we find no further anticipation effect of self-employment and a weak positive but not significant effect of self-employment on job satisfaction for three years. Thus adaptation wipes out higher satisfaction within the first three years being self-employed. According to our results previous studies at least overestimated possible positive effects of self-employment on job satisfaction.
    Keywords: job satisfaction, self-employment, hedonic treadmill model, adaptation, anticipation, fixed-effects panel estimations, German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)
    JEL: J23 J28 J8
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Bauer, Thomas (RWI); Bender, Stefan (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg); Paloyo, Alfredo (Ruhr Graduate School in Economics); Schmidt, Christoph M. (RWI)
    Abstract: Compulsory military service typically drafts young men when they are at the height of their learning ability. Thus, it can be expected to depress the demand for higher education since skill atrophy and the delayed entry into the civilian labor market reduce the returns to human-capital investments. Attending university, however, might open the possibility to avoid the draft, leading to an increase in the demand for tertiary education. To estimate the causal effect of conscription on the probability to obtain a university degree, we use a regression-discontinuity design that employs special regulations associated with the introduction of conscription in Germany in 1956. We estimate conscription to increase the probability of having a university degree.
    Keywords: career interruption, conscription, regression discontinuity, skill atrophy, TS2SLS
    JEL: I28 J24
    Date: 2011–05
  3. By: Camargos, Braz Ministério de; Pastorino, Elena
    Abstract: We introduce human capital accumulation, in the form of learning{by{doing, in alife cycle model of career concerns and analyze how human capital acquisition a ectsimplicit incentives for performance. We show that standard results from the careerconcerns literature can be reversed in the presence of human capital accumulation.Namely, implicit incentives need not decrease over time and may decrease with thedegree of uncertainty about an individual's talent. Furthermore, increasing the pre-cision of output measurement can weaken rather than strengthen implicit incentives.Overall, our results contribute to shed new light on the ability of markets to disciplinemoral hazard in the absence of explicit contracts linking pay to performance.
    Date: 2011–06–02
  4. By: Elisabeth Bublitz (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Florian Noseleit (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: Entrepreneurs are found to have balanced skill sets and most have worked in small firms before starting their own business. In light of this, we compare the skill sets of employees working in businesses of different size to the skill sets of entrepreneurs using a rich data set on the applied skills of individuals. This data set allows us to construct an indicator that measures skill balance in the uantity (skill scope) and quality (skill level) dimension. Our results show that employees working in large businesses tend to have a lower skill balance than those working in small businesses; yet, the skill balance of entrepreneurs remains the largest. The impact of human capital formation on skill balance also varies among employees of different business sizes and entrepreneurs. Finally, the estimated returns to balanced skills are largest for entrepreneurs whereas, for employees, these returns decrease as business size increases. However, we find no relationship between balancing skills at lower skill levels and income, indicating that both dimensions - skill level and skill scope - are relevant. We end by discussing the policy implications that can be drawn from our results in regard to skill balance.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, returns to human capital, balanced skill set, jack-of-all-trades
    JEL: J24 J31 L26 M13
    Date: 2011–06–07
  5. By: Palivos, Theodore; Varvarigos, Dimitrios
    Abstract: We construct an overlapping generations model in which parents vote on the tax rate that determines publicly provided education and offspring choose their effort in learning activities. The technology governing the accumulation of human capital allows these decisions to be strategic complements. In the presence of coordination failure, indeterminacy and, possibly, growth volatility emerge. This indeterminacy can be eliminated by an institutional mechanism that commits to a minimum level of public education provision. Given that, in the latter case, the economy moves along a uniquely determined balanced growth path, we argue that such structural differences can account for the negative correlation between volatility and growth.
    Keywords: Human Capital; Intergenerational Complementarities; Economic Growth; Endogenous Taxation; Volatility
    JEL: H42 O41 H52
    Date: 2011–04–16
  6. By: Dr. Kamran Janfeshan (Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad university, Iran); Belal Panahy (Payam-e-noor University, Iran); Seid-Mehdi Veiseh (Payam-E-Noor University, Iran); Farideh Kamari (Science Educational Technology)
    Abstract: In the modern word, successful organizations have undertaken new values and approaches, and due to these values, they have achieved more morality and success. People are also deeply interested in embracing morality, not only in their personal lives, but also in their career and social life. When the society is packed with technology, communication, complication and instability, people show a tendency toward morality to fill the vacuity appeared in their lives, not only within their personal lives, but also within their career life where they spend a part of their time. Encouraging morality in work has some advantages for organizations. Morality at work results in creativity, honesty and trust, self-success, organization, commitment, and better performance of the organization. When someone feels committed to the organization s/he works for is loyal to moral and human values and respects its employees, s/he feels a kind of adaptation with the values of the organization and works for those values. The more a person is committed to morality, the more his/her creativity, mental and spiritual justice, moral and social justice, and managerial and ruling justice will be. People who have values based on theism, believe in the divine origin of the human being and in the afterlife and consider themselves as responsible and answerable before God, their existence society, and the world. This paper, in addition to giving a definition of morality, has studied morality at work from the viewpoint of different theorists, and the essence of morality from the viewpoint of religion, naturalism and existentialism, and its correlation with important managerial and organizational variables
    Keywords: Spirituality, Justice, Naturalism, Religious Viewpoint, Existentialism
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2011–03
  7. By: Baez, Javier E. (World Bank); Camacho, Adriana (Universidad de los Andes)
    Abstract: Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT) are programs under which poor families get a stipend provided they keep their children in school and take them for health checks. While there is significant evidence showing that they have positive impacts on school participation, little is known about their long-term impacts on human capital. In this paper we investigate whether cohorts of children from poor households that benefited up to nine years from Familias en Acción, a CCT in Colombia, attained more school and performed better in academic tests at the end of high school. Identification of program impacts is derived from two different strategies using matching techniques with household surveys, and regression discontinuity design using census of the poor and administrative records of the program. We show that, on average, participant children are 4 to 8 percentage points more likely than nonparticipant children to finish high school, particularly girls and beneficiaries in rural areas. Regarding long-term impact on tests scores, the analysis shows that program recipients who graduate from high school seem to perform at the same level as equally poor non-recipient graduates, even after correcting for possible selection bias when low-performing students enter school in the treatment group. Even though the positive impacts on high school graduation may improve the employment and earning prospects of participants, the lack of positive effects on the test scores raises the need to further explore policy actions to couple CCT's objective of increasing human capital with enhanced learning.
    Keywords: Conditional Cash Transfers, school completion, academic achievement, learning outcomes
    JEL: I28 I38
    Date: 2011–05
  8. By: Othman Mohd. Yunus (Universiti Teknologi Mara (Perak)); Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim (Universiti Teknologi Mara); Alwi Bin Shabuddin (Universiti Teknologi Mara); Munira Mazlan
    Abstract: This paper seeks to explore work ethic of Malaysian civil servants. Positive work ethic among others emphasize on hard work, commitment and dedication, and avoidance of wealth accumulation through unethical methods. This ethic is indeed valued by organizations. Employees holding strongly to positive work ethic ensure organization of its goal. The questionnaire used to gauge the level of work ethic among Malaysian civil servants is the Islamic work ethic developed by Ali (1988). A total of 90 civil servants of the Islamic faith responded to the questionnaire. The result shows respondents hold strongly to Islamic work ethic
    Keywords: Human Resource Management, Organizational Behavior, Ethic
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2011–03
  9. By: Dr. Hassan Danaiee-Fard (Tarbiat-Modares University, Iran); Sayed Mahdi Viseh; Hamideh Shekary (Payam-E-Noor University, Iran)
    Abstract: Constant environment changes and the increases in the impact of information technology and communications have brought the human beings to the point of feeling being disorganized and alienated. Having a supporting system relying on which man can preserve his mental and spiritual calmness is now suggested as a necessity. Spirituality and faith are of the phenomena which are always encouraging people to be humanitarian and try to satisfy the needs of other people. When different dimensions of spirituality are applied in the working environment, individual satisfaction and creativity, organizational order, and long-term commercial success are increased. This paper mainly aims at studying the spiritual capacities and spiritual leadership in applied management, and after giving some general definitions of spirituality, it studies the role of spirituality and spiritual leadership in the efficiency of working environment and improvement of working conditions in the organizations
    Keywords: Spirituality, Spiritual Leadership, Spirituality at Work, Improvement in Working Condition
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2011–03
  10. By: Aerni Isa; Rajeswari A/P Devadass (University Tenaga Nasional); Mohan Dass (Swinburne University, Australia)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to examine the performance and reward system at Victoria Government Schools. Furthermore, the paper highlights on the area of performance management, performance development, performance assessment and the outcome in their job satisfaction and the effectiveness in performance among the school teacher at Victoria Government School. Based on in open- ended interview, direct observation, and the voice respondent on the qualitative approach it helps the participant and the researcher to make sense of interpret their shared of understanding on the implementation of performance and reward system approach at Victoria Government School. Finally, the results demonstrate that the implementation of the performance system approach at Victoria Government school are motivating the teachers to have a great expectation in implementing a variety of promoting choices, quality and strong values in Australia’s education
    Keywords: Job satisfaction, performance, fairness, justice, voice
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2011–03
  11. By: Maré, David. C (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Fabling, Richard (Reserve Bank of New Zealand)
    Abstract: This chapter examines the link between firm productivity and the population composition of the areas in which firms operate. We combine annual firm-level microdata on production, covering a large proportion of the New Zealand economy, with area-level workforce characteristics obtained from population censuses. Overall, the results support the existence of agglomeration effects that operate through labour markets. We find evidence of productive spillovers from operating in areas with high-skilled workers, and with high population density. A high-skilled local workforce benefits firms in high-skilled and high-research and development industries, and small firms. The benefits of local population density are strongest for firms in dense areas, and for small and new firms. Firms providing local services are more productive in areas with high shares of migrants and new entrants, consistent with local demand factors.
    Keywords: productivity, agglomeration, workforce composition
    JEL: R1 R3 D24
    Date: 2011–05

This nep-hrm issue is ©2011 by Tommaso Reggiani. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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