nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2009‒10‒24
ten papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
University of Siena

  1. Return Intentions among Potential Migrants and Commuters: The Role of Human Capital, Deprivation and Networks By Peter Huber; Klaus Nowotny
  2. Apprenticeship Training and the Business Cycle By Mühlemann, Samuel; Wolter, Stefan; Wüest, Adrian
  3. Country Performance at the International Mathematical Olympiad By Golo Henseke
  4. The Tools of Transition: Education and Development in Modern Southeast Asian History By Tim Harper
  5. Towards better Schools and more Equal Opportunities for Learning in Italy By Romina Boarini
  6. Institutional Influences on strategic entrepreneurial Behaviours By Erkko Autio; Zoltan Acs
  7. Innovation and Social Capital: A Cross-country Investigation By Soogwan Doh; Zoltan J. Acs
  8. Child policy ineffectiveness in an OLG small open economy with human capital accumulation and public education By Luciano Fanti and Luca Gori
  9. Kindergarten Enrollment and the Intergenerational Transmission of Education By Bauer, Philipp C.; Riphahn, Regina T.
  10. Social Capital and Economic Performance: some lessons from Farm Partnerships in Sweden By Fragkandreas, Thanos; Larsen, Karin

  1. By: Peter Huber (WIFO); Klaus Nowotny (WIFO)
    Abstract: We analyse determinants of duration of stay of cross-border commuters and migrants. Theory suggests that relative deprivation affects only intended duration of stay of migrants, but not of cross-border commuters. This is corroborated by econometric evidence. Also, return migrants and commuters are positively selected on education, networks are insignificant determinants of duration of stay while distance and education are more important for commuters' duration of stay. These results are robust over different estimation methods and apply both when measuring deprivation relative to friends and family and relative to the population residing in a region.
    Date: 2009–08–31
  2. By: Mühlemann, Samuel (University of Bern); Wolter, Stefan (University of Bern); Wüest, Adrian (affiliation not available)
    Abstract: Dual apprenticeship training is a market-driven form of education at the upper secondary level, taking place in firms as well as in vocational schools. So far, little is known about the impact of the business cycle on the number of apprenticeship programs offered by firms. Using panel-data of Swiss cantons from 1988-2004, we find that the influence of the business cycle is statistically significant, but small in size. Instead, supply of apprenticeship programs is driven to a much greater extent by demographic change. Conversely, the number of first-year high school students is not affected by the business cycle. We find, however, that enrollment increases if the population at age 16 grows, but access to high schools does not become more restricted in times of negative growth.
    Keywords: apprenticeship training, business cycle, high school enrollment
    JEL: E24 I21 J18 J44
    Date: 2009–10
  3. By: Golo Henseke (University of Rostock)
    Abstract: This study seeks to explain country differences in the performance at the International Mathematical Olympiad. Hypotheses on the relationship between, on one hand, performance at the Olympiads and, on the other, population size and dynamics, economic resources, human capital, schooling quantity and quality, and the political regime are tested with a panel dataset of 97 countries over the period 1993-2006. The analysis distinguishes between crosscountry differences and intra-country differences. Results indicate that macro-conditions explain cross-country differences well but fail to predict changes in performance over time. Thus, long-term differences in country characteristics are associated with the average performance of Olympians.
    Keywords: Science Olympiads, Talent in mathematics, Country panel, PISA
    JEL: I21 H52 J24
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Tim Harper
    Abstract: Although great importance is attached to the role of education in national development in Southeast Asia, its role has been ambivalent. In the colonial period, education was a central way in which societies mobilised to challenge and resist European rulers. Yet education has also been the central vehicle through which colonial and post-colonial states have sought to impose their own visions and discipline their subjects. Southeast Asia’s history has been marked by a cultural willingness to borrow and adapt ideas, practices and institutions from outside. Yet this has also been a source of anxiety and conflict. The ‘indigenous’ is often a product of an immediate post-colonial history, rather than the expression of a longer cultural experience. Historians can try to provide a useful narrative of regional thinking about education and development in Southeast Asia, particularly during its key ‘periods of transition’, and thus help to set educational developments within in a wider context. Providing a historical perspective, this paper attempts to map some of the region’s capacities and capabilities, and to examine how adequately they have been exploited by the formal educational sector.
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Romina Boarini
    Abstract: Compulsory school education in Italy produces poor results in terms of 15-year olds’ performance on PISA tests, compared with other OECD countries, despite a relatively high level of expenditure. While the influence of social background is smaller than in many OECD countries, it is largely transmitted through a kind of self-segregation resulting from family choices among the different types of upper secondary school. Large differences in pupils’ performance between regions cannot be explained by the quantity of resources available; separating the influence of socio-economic conditions from school efficiency is difficult and must be treated carefully in plans for extending fiscal federalism. The Italian government is rightly concerned to get better value for money and this chapter argues that policies to improve the information available to schools and teachers on the results they are achieving, while giving them appropriate incentives, responsibility and power to respond to such information, are necessary accompaniments to expenditure-saving policies. An improved focus on good quality training, both for new recruits and experienced teachers, and recruitment procedures themselves, should also pay dividends on efficiency.<P>Améliorer l’école et l’égalité d’accès à l’éducation en Italie<BR>Par rapport aux autres pays de l'OCDE, les résultats des tests PISA des élèves italiens de 15 ans sont médiocres, et ce, malgré des dépenses d’éducation relativement élevées. Si l’incidence du milieu social est moindre que dans de nombreux autres pays membres, elle passe essentiellement par une sorte d’autodiscrimination résultant du choix des familles entre les différents types d’établissements secondaires du deuxième cycle. L’importance des écarts de résultats scolaires entre les régions ne peut s’expliquer par le volume des ressources disponibles. Il est difficile de faire la distinction entre l’impact des conditions socioéconomiques et l’efficience des établissements, et cela doit être étudié avec soin dans le cadre des projets d’extension du fédéralisme fiscal. Le gouvernement italien souhaite, à juste titre, optimiser les dépenses publiques et le présent chapitre défend l’idée selon laquelle des mesures visant à améliorer les informations à disposition des établissements scolaires et des enseignants concernant leurs résultats – tout en leur apportant les incitations, les responsabilités et les pouvoirs nécessaires pour agir en fonction de ces résultats – doivent accompagner les mesures d’économies budgétaires. Une attention plus grande accordée à une formation de qualité pour les enseignants, qu’il s’agisse des nouvelles recrues comme des enseignants chevronnés, ainsi qu’aux procédures de recrutement elles-mêmes, devrait également favoriser l’efficience.
    Keywords: education, Italy, Italie, éducation, fiscal federalism, fédéralisme fiscal, PISA data, données PISA, school outcomes, résultats scolaires
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2009–10–12
  6. By: Erkko Autio (Imperial College Business School); Zoltan Acs (George Mason University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the existence of cross-level moderating effects between national appropriability conditions, individual level predictors and entrepreneurial growth aspirations. We test a multi-level model that connects the determinants of strategic resource allocation decisions at the individual level with the strength of the intellectual property rights regime at the national level. The results suggest that the strengths of the intellectual property regime will moderate negatively the relationship between an individual's education and her growth aspirations and moderate positively the relationship between an individual's income and her growth aspirations. The findings support claims that strategic entrepreneurial behavior cannot be fully understood without giving attention to the context in which those behaviors are observed.
    Keywords: strategic entrepreneurship, multi-level analysis, intellectual property protection, growth aspirations
    JEL: L26 J24 C3 M13 F5
    Date: 2009–10–05
  7. By: Soogwan Doh (George Mason University); Zoltan J. Acs (George Mason University)
    Abstract: This study explores the impact of social capital on innovation by constructing a more general measure of social capital indicator consisting of generalized and institutional trust, associational activities and civic norms. We test the hypothesis that social capital has a positive impact on innovation at the national level. After controlling for R&D expenditure and human capital there is a positive relationship between social capital and innovation. Social capital interacts with entrepreneurship and the strongest relationship is between associated activities and entrepreneurship. This is consistent with the need to build social relationships in today's networked economy.
    Keywords: human capital, social capital, entrepreneurship, innovation, generalized and institutional trust, civic norms, associational activities
    JEL: L26 J24 O31 O5
    Date: 2009–10–13
  8. By: Luciano Fanti and Luca Gori
    Abstract: Motivated by the recent decrease in the number of children experienced in many developed countries, in this paper we consider an OLG small open economy with endogenous fertility and human capital formation through public education and look at the role the government can play in affecting fertility rates through the widely used child allowance policy. Contrary to the conventional wisdom, we show that child allowances do not affect fertility. The policy implication is that the public provision of child allowances is not effective as a pro-natalist policy, while also reducing human capital accumulation. In contrast, enhancing the public provision of education is beneficial for both fertility and human capital.
    Keywords: Child allowance; Fertility; Public education; Small open economy.
    JEL: I28 J13
    Date: 2009–10–15
  9. By: Bauer, Philipp C. (economiesuisse); Riphahn, Regina T. (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg)
    Abstract: We use Swiss data to test whether intergenerational educational mobility is affected by the age at which children enroll in kindergarten. Taking advantage of heterogeneity across cantons we find that early kindergarten enrollment significantly increases educational mobility.
    Keywords: Kindergarten, pre-school enrollment, educational mobility, intergenerational transmission of education
    JEL: I2 I21 J24 D30
    Date: 2009–10
  10. By: Fragkandreas, Thanos; Larsen, Karin
    Abstract: The social capital literature usually perceives social capital as dues ex machine for economic performance. In this paper we use existing social capital theory to develop a conceptual framework to explain; (i) the importance of organizational capital as the ‘missing link’ between social capital and economic performance, and (ii) the phenomenon of ‘complementarity’ of different forms of capital (i.e. Physical, Financial, Human, Social, Organizational and Economic Capital) as a prerequisite for economic performance. The conceptual framework is applied to Swedish farm partnerships involving machinery- and labour sharing. Our study suggest that (i) social capital combined with other forms of capital, such as financial, human, physical and organizational leads to greater economic outcomes and (ii) the creation of organizational capital can explain higher economic performance.
    Keywords: Social Capital; Organizational Capital; Farm Partnerships; Economic Performance
    JEL: Z13 A14
    Date: 2009–08–09

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