nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2009‒09‒26
twelve papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
University of Siena

  1. Human capital background and the educational attainment of the second-generation immigrants in France By Manon Domingues Dos Santos; François-Charles Wolff
  2. Literacy Traps: Society-Wide Education and Individual Skill Premia By Atal, Vidya; Basu, Kaushik; Gray, John; Lee, Travis
  3. Estimates of the level and growth effects of human capital in India By Rao, B. Bhaskara; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya
  4. Education Corruption, Reform, and Growth: Case of Post-Soviet Russia By Osipian, Ararat
  5. Inequality in workers’ lifelong learning across european countries: Evidence from EU-SILC data-set By Biagetti, Marco; Scicchitano, Sergio
  6. Securing Human Rights Intellectually: Philosophical Inquiries about the Universal Declaration By Risse, Mathias
  7. The interplay between entrepreneurship education and regional knowledge potential in forming entrepreneurial intentions By Sascha Walter; Dirk Dohse
  8. Investing in Education By Smyth, Emer; McCoy, Selina
  9. Catch Me If You Can: Education and Catch-up in the Industrial Revoluti on By Woessmann, Ludger; Hornung, Erik; Becker, Sascha O.
  10. What Turns Knowledge into Innovative Products? The Role of Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Spillovers By Block, J.H.; Thurik, A.R.; Zhou, H.
  11. The Officina Emilia Initiative:Innovative Local Actions to Support Education and Training Systems By Margherita Russo; Paola Mengoli
  12. Clusters of Entrepreneurship By Edward L. Glaeser; William R. Kerr; Giacomo A.M. Ponzetto

  1. By: Manon Domingues Dos Santos (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - INSEE - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique); François-Charles Wolff (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the impact of the human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants in France. First, we show that the skill of immigrants explains the main part of the ethnic educational gap between their children. More precisely, if the education of immigrants has a predominant impact on the educational attainment of their children, their assimilation degree, essentially captured by their French fluency or their length of stay in France, also contributes to explain ethnic educational gaps. Secondly, we show that the impact of the immigrants' education on the educational attainment of their children depends on their country of origin, their place of schooling as well as their French proficiency.
    Date: 2009–09–17
  2. By: Atal, Vidya (Cornell University); Basu, Kaushik (Cornell University); Gray, John (Cornell University); Lee, Travis (Cornell University)
    Abstract: Using a model of O-ring production function, the paper demonstrates how certain communities can get caught in a low-literacy trap in which each individual finds it not worthwhile investing in higher skills because others are not high-skilled. The model sheds light on educational policy. It is shown that policy for promoting human capital has to take the form of a mechanism for solving the coordination failure in people's choice of educational strategy.
    JEL: D20 I28 J31
    Date: 2009–02
  3. By: Rao, B. Bhaskara; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya
    Abstract: In the extended Solow growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992) human capital has only permanent level and no growth effects. In the endogenous growth models human capital is a growth improving variable. Human capital may have both a permanent level and a permanent growth effect. We show, with data from India, that both the level and growth effects of human capital can be estimated with an extension to the Solow model.
    Keywords: Solow model; Level and growth effects of human capital and India
    JEL: O10
    Date: 2009–09–24
  4. By: Osipian, Ararat
    Abstract: This paper investigates a possible impact of education corruption on economic growth in Russia. It argues that high levels of education corruption may harm total factor productivity in the long run, primarily through lowering the level of human capital and slowing down the pace of its accumulation. Ethical standards learned in the process of training in universities can also affect the standards of practice in different professions. The growing level of productivity is not likely to reduce education corruption in the short run, but can eventually lead to implementation of higher ethical standards in the education sector.
    Keywords: corruption; education; growth; reform; Russia; transition
    JEL: P21 P37 K42
    Date: 2009–09–21
  5. By: Biagetti, Marco; Scicchitano, Sergio
    Abstract: The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the potential for EU-SILC data to deepen our understanding of the determinants of inequality in workers’ formal life-long learning (LLL) in Europe. In particular we investigate the incidence of personal, job-specific and firm-specific characteristics on the workers’ probability to undertake adult learning. To do so, we first estimate LLL incidence in the whole sample for men and women. Then we estimate separate 21 country-specific equations, for both sexes. This method allows to investigate cross-country gender differences and avoid unobserved heteroscedasticity due to sex, which we clearly find in the data. For the whole sample the results show that, for both men and women, formal LLL incidence is significantly higher among young, better educated, part-time and temporary workers, and lower among those who changed current job in the last year, employed in small firms and having low-skilled occupations. Furthermore, some gender differences for the whole sample emerge. When estimating separate equations for each country and for both sexes, a significant cross-country heterogeneity and a weaker significance of the coefficients come to light. In particular, a couple of relevant results emerge for Scandinavian countries with regard to the complementarity between past level of education and current adult learning. Finland is the only country in the sample in which, for both men and women, less educated workers are more likely to undertake formal LLL, thus making adult learning system able to avoid, for both men and women, existing inequality in human capital, as it results from education levels. Denmark is the only country where, for women, being less educated turns out to be the predictor with the greatest significant magnitude of the effect in the variation of the probability.
    Keywords: education; training; lifelong learning; human capital; inequality; Europe
    JEL: J40 J24
    Date: 2009–09–16
  6. By: Risse, Mathias (Harvard University)
    Abstract: This article is intended for an edited volume in the series "The New Harvard Bookshelf: Towards a Liberal Education for the 21st Century." The purpose of that collection is to bring together articles that capture the basic ideas of various courses offered in the general education curriculum of Harvard College. This article is based on the syllabus of my course Human Rights: A Philosophical Introduction (ER11). It begins with a brief historical introduction to the human rights movement and to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. However, the main goal of this article is to explore three different approaches to arguing that human beings have rights in virtue of being human. I conclude with a few remarks on the universalism/relativism debate.
    Date: 2009–08
  7. By: Sascha Walter; Dirk Dohse
    Abstract: This study examines how the effect of entrepreneurship education on students’ entrepreneurial intentions is (1) contingent on the mode of education (active, e.g. business plan seminar, vs reflective, e.g. theory lectures), (2) contingent on the regional context and (3) complemented by individual-level influences such as role models or work experience. Results show that active modes of entrepreneurship education directly increase intentions and attitudes, whereas the impact of reflective modes depends on the regional context. Parental role models and work experience are found to complement entrepreneurship education in different ways. The findings have important implications for theory building as well as for the practice of teaching entrepreneurship
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education, knowledge spillover, entrepreneurial intentions, theory of planned behavior
    JEL: A20 I23 O31 R19
    Date: 2009–09
  8. By: Smyth, Emer (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)); McCoy, Selina (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))
    Date: 2009–09
  9. By: Woessmann, Ludger; Hornung, Erik; Becker, Sascha O.
    Abstract: Existing evidence, mostly from British textile industries, rejects the importance of formal education for the Industrial Revolution. We provide new evidence from Prussia, a technological follower, where early-19th-century institutional reforms created the conditions to adopt the exogenously emerging new technologies. Our unique school-enrollment and factory-employment database links 334 counties from pre-industrial 1816 to two industrial phases in 1849 and 1882. Controlling extensively for pre-industrial development, we use pre-industrial education as an instrument to identify variation in later education that is exogenous to industrialization itself. We find that basic education significantly accelerated nontextile industrialization in both phases of the Industrial Revolution.
    Keywords: Prussian economic history; industrialization; Human capital
    Date: 2009–09
  10. By: Block, J.H.; Thurik, A.R.; Zhou, H. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship seeks to explain the sources of entrepreneurship and its consequences with regard to economic performance. This paper extends this theory and links it to innovation performance. We propose that a high rate of entrepreneurship facilitates the process of turning knowledge into innovative products while it has no effect on the relation between knowledge and imitative products. We use European country-level data to test our propositions. Our results show that a high rate of entrepreneurship increases the chances that knowledge turns into innovative products. The findings highlight the importance of entrepreneurs in the process of commercialization of knowledge. Implications for innovation policy are discussed.
    Keywords: innovation;entrepreneurship;knowledge;patents;technology policy;knowledge spillovers;commercialization of knowledge;economic growth;O30
    Date: 2009–09–15
  11. By: Margherita Russo; Paola Mengoli
    Abstract: The issue of the regeneration of skills, in particular in the light engineering industry, is addressed by Officina Emilia (henceforth OE) as a crucial one in order to re-examine the interweaving of education, innovation and local development in the SMEs production systems. The project, aimed at the education and training systems, is designed to enhance the industrial culture in order to strengthen technical and scientific education. First sponsored in 2000 by the University of Modena & Reggio Emilia (Italy), over the last years OE has gathered the support of local actors dealing with the themes of training, culture, and local development. In 2009 it opened its museolaboratorio (“workshop-museum”) in which teaching activities promote an interest in the themes of work, technologies and the socio-economic development of the territory among the students and teachers of schools of all types and levels. The involvement of class groups, of teachers and other visitors takes place through active learning practices that foster motivation and develop a sense of belonging which is likely to lead to a more profitable educational experience, both secondary and tertiary, as well as to contribute to improving career prospects. Officina Emilia proposes innovative action on a local level, allowing for the implementation of effective teaching practices as well as the broadening and consolidation of best practices which might support a society-wide trend towards maintaining a high demand for a better quality of education and the ability to provide it. Ten years after the beginning of the initiative, with this paper we intend to open up the discussion on the various research issues and on the actions undertaken, focusing on the analytical tools and the main critical areas in the further implementation of the Officina Emilia initiative.
    Keywords: Analysis of Education; Education Policy; Regional Development Policies; Innovation
    JEL: I21 J24 I28 O31 R58
    Date: 2009–05
  12. By: Edward L. Glaeser; William R. Kerr; Giacomo A.M. Ponzetto
    Abstract: Employment growth is strongly predicted by smaller average establishment size, both across cities and across industries within cities, but there is little consensus on why this relationship exists. Traditional economic explanations emphasize factors that reduce entry costs or raise entrepreneurial returns, thereby increasing net returns and attracting entrepreneurs. A second class of theories hypothesizes that some places are endowed with a greater supply of entrepreneurship. Evidence on sales per worker does not support the higher returns for entrepreneurship rationale. Our evidence suggests that entrepreneurship is higher when fixed costs are lower and when there are more entrepreneurial people.
    JEL: J00 J2 L0 L1 L2 L6 O3 R2
    Date: 2009–09

This nep-hrm issue is ©2009 by Fabio Sabatini. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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