nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2009‒08‒02
five papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
University of Siena

  1. Environmental health and education : Towards sustainable growth By Natacha Raffin
  2. Human Capital vs. Physical Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis of Human Development Strategies By Rizwana Siddiqui
  3. The Interplay of Human and Social Capital in Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: The Case of Keywords: social capital, human capital, entrepreneurship, developing countries By Rooks, Gerrit; Szirmai, Adam; Sserwanga, Arthur
  4. On the Robustness of Brain Gain Estimates By Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frédéric; Rapoport, Hillel
  5. Tunisia's Development Experience: A Success Story? By Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

  1. By: Natacha Raffin (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)
    Abstract: This article aims at investigating the interplay between environmental quality, health and development. We consider an OLG model, where human capital dynamics depend on the current environment, through its impact on children's school attendance. In turn, environmental quality dynamics depend on human capital, through maintenance and pollution. This two-way causality generates a co-evolution of human capital and environmental quality and may induce the emergence of an environmental poverty trap characterized by a low level of human capital and deteriorated environmental quality. Our results are consistent with empirical observation about the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve. Finally, the model allows for the assessment of an environmental policy that would allow to escape the trap.
    Keywords: Education, environmental quality, growth, health.
    Date: 2009–04
  2. By: Rizwana Siddiqui (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)
    Abstract: This study estimates a small simultaneous equation model using panel data from sixty-four countries for the years 1996 and 2004. The model is estimated by various techniques—OLS, TSLS, dummy variable approach introducing variation at the regional level, and fixed and random effect approaches introducing variation at the individual country level. The objective is to identify the importance of basic needs in human development strategies in Asia, Africa, and the rest of the world (ROW). The results show that income per capita has priority over basic needs expenditure in development strategies of all regions despite being quantitatively different. However, the importance of basic needs expenditure cannot be denied in terms of capabilities development (improvement in health) that ultimately increases productivity.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Physical Capital, Income Per Capita, Basic Needs Expenditures, Human Development
    JEL: J24 E22 P24
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Rooks, Gerrit; Szirmai, Adam; Sserwanga, Arthur
    Abstract: This paper discusses the characteristics and determinants of entrepreneurial behaviour in Uganda. It is based on a recent survey of urban and rural entrepreneurs, executed in May 2008. The main dependent variables are business success, gestation activities and innovative performance. The paper focuses in particular on the interplay of human and social capital in determining entrepreneurial performance. A prominent question in the literature is whether human capital and social capital act as complements or substitutes in furthering entrepreneurial dynamism.We find that Ugandan enterprises are predominantly very small and not very dynamic. Most enterprises are young, with little or no growth of employment since start-up. Only a very small subset of sample entrepreneurs could be classified as entrepreneur in the dynamic
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Beine, Michel (University of Luxembourg); Docquier, Frédéric (Catholic University of Louvain); Rapoport, Hillel (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: Recent theoretical studies suggest that migration prospects can raise the expected return to human capital and thus foster education investment at home or, in other words, induce a brain gain. In a recent paper (Beine, Docquier and Rapoport, Economic Journal, 2008) we used the Docquier and Marfouk (2006) data set on emigration rates by education level to examine the impact of brain drain migration on gross (pre-migration) human capital formation in developing countries. We found a positive effect of skilled migration prospects on human capital growth in a cross-section of 127 developing countries, with an elasticity of about 5 percent. In this paper we assess the robustness of our results to the use of alternative brain drain measures, definitions of human capital, and functional forms. We find that the results hold using the Beine et al. (2007) alternative brain drain measures controlling for whether migrants acquired their skills in the home or in the host country. We also regress other indicators of human capital investment on skilled migration rates and find a positive effect on youth literacy while the effect on school enrolment depends on the exact specification chosen.
    Keywords: brain drain, brain gain, migration
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2009–07
  5. By: Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina
    Abstract: Tunisia.s recent growth and development performance relative to countries in its region, and relative to countries at similar levels of development in other parts of the world, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, have been notable. An analysis of Tunisia.s path to development reveals that the country.s development strategy relied primarily on diversifying its production and trade and enhancing its human capital with emphasis on women.s empowerment. Family planning programmes that have caused fertility to decline significantly are a hallmark of Tunisia.s development strategy. This paper reviews Tunisia.s experience, identifies the major challenges and threats to the viability of its development strategy, and pinpoints lessons
    Keywords: Development, politics of co-optation, trade openness, fertility, human capital, wonmen's empowerment, Tunisia
    Date: 2009

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