nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2008‒12‒07
twelve papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
University of Siena

  1. Institutions, Education, and Economic Performance By Lim, Jamus Jerome; Adams-Kane, Jonathon
  2. Determinants of growth and convergence in a growing economy with heterogeneous entrepreneurs By Dirk Dohse; Ingrid Ott
  3. Inequality in Human Development: An empirical assessment of thirty-two countries By Michael Grimm; Stephan Klasen; Ken Harttgen; Mark Misselhorn; Teresa Munzi; Timothy Smeeding
  4. Peer Effects and Social Networks in Education By Calvó-Armengol, Antoni; Patacchini, Eleonora; Zenou, Yves
  5. Education and Mobility By Machin, Stephen; Pelkonen, Panu; Salvanes, Kjell G.
  6. Education return and financing : donated affluence as consequence of tuition free study programs in Germany By Hans-Georg Petersen; Markus Kirchner
  7. The distributional impact of increased school resources: the Specialist Schools Initiative and the Excellence in Cities Programme By Steve Bradley; Jim Taylor; Giuseppe Migali
  8. Home computers and educational outcomes: evidence from the NLSY97 and CPS By Daniel O. Beltran; Kuntal K. Das; Robert W. Fairlie
  9. How HRM control affects boundary-spanning employees’ behavioural strategies and satisfaction : The moderating impact of cultural performance orientation By Rouziès, Dominique; Onyemah, Vincent; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos
  10. E-inclusion in Finland and Italy in the light of statistical data. By Franck Tétard; Nicola Villa; Joanna Carlsson; Erkki Patokorpi; Milena Casagranda; Sara Tomasini
  11. Innovative Work Behaviour: Measurement and Validation By Jeroen de Jong; Deanne Den Hartog
  12. Collaboration networks as carriers of knowledge spillovers: Evidence from EU27 regions By Jarno Hoekman; Koen Frenken; Frank van Oort

  1. By: Lim, Jamus Jerome; Adams-Kane, Jonathon
    Abstract: This paper considers the interactions between governance, educational outcomes, and economic performance. More specifically, we seek to establish the linkages by which institutional quality affect growth by considering its mediating impact on education. While the contribution of both human capital and institutions to growth are often acknowledged, the channels by which institutions affect human capital and, in turn, growth, has been relatively underexplored. Our empirical approach adopts a two-stage strategy that estimates national-level educational production functions which include institutional governance as a covariate, and uses these estimates as instruments for human capital in cross-country growth regressions.
    Keywords: Institutions; human capital; education; economic growth
    JEL: O43 H11 O15
    Date: 2008–10–28
  2. By: Dirk Dohse; Ingrid Ott
    Abstract: We develop an endogenous growth model which is focussed on entrepreneurial skills and their impact on growth and convergence. Our work is closely related to the model by Acemoglu et al. (2006) but extends their analysis in some important respects. Entrepreneurs in our model dispose of two different skills (technological and systemic skills) and we are able to show that it is not only the absolute skill level but also the aggregate distribution of different skills that drives growth and convergence of an economy towards the world technology frontier
    Keywords: growth, skills, innovation, selection, distance to frontier
    JEL: O31 O33 O38 J24 L26
    Date: 2008–11
  3. By: Michael Grimm (ISS, The Hague / The Netherlands); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-Universität / Göttingen); Ken Harttgen (Georg-August-Universität / Göttingen); Mark Misselhorn; Teresa Munzi; Timothy Smeeding
    Abstract: One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that it does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. We use a simple approach, which allows to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows to compare the level in human development of the poor with the level of the non-poor within countries, but also across countries. This is an application of the method presented in Grimm et al. (2008) to a sample of 21 low and middle income countries and 11 industrialized countries. Our results show that inequality in human development within countries is high both in developed and industrialized countries. In fact, the HDI of the lowest quintiles in industrialized countries is often below the HDI of the richest quintile in many middle income countries. We also find, however, a strong overall negative correlation between the level of human development and inequality in human development.
    Keywords: Human Development, Income Inequality, Differential Mortality, Inequality in Education
    Date: 2008–10–17
  4. By: Calvó-Armengol, Antoni (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Patacchini, Eleonora (University of Rome La Sapienza); Zenou, Yves (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This paper studies whether structural properties of friendship networks affect individual outcomes in education. We first develop a model that shows that, at the Nash equilibrium, the outcome of each individual embedded in a network is proportional to her Katz-Bonacich centrality measure. This measure takes into account both direct and indirect friends of each individual but puts less weight to her distant friends. We then bring the model to the data by using a very detailed dataset of adolescent friendship networks. We show that, after controlling for observable individual characteristics and unobservable network specific factors, the individual's position in a network (as measured by her Katz-Bonacich centrality) is a key determinant of her level of activity. A standard deviation increase in the Katz-Bonacich centrality increases the pupil school performance by more than 7 percent of one standard deviation.
    Keywords: centrality measure, peer influence, network structure, school performance
    JEL: A14 C31 C72 I21
    Date: 2008–11
  5. By: Machin, Stephen (University College London); Pelkonen, Panu (London School of Economics); Salvanes, Kjell G. (Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: We show that the length of compulsory education has a causal impact on regional labour mobility. The analysis is based on a quasi-exogenous staged Norwegian school reform, and register data on the whole population. Based on the results, we conclude that part of the US-Europe difference, as well as the European North-South difference in labour mobility, is likely to be due to differences in levels of education in the respective regions.
    Keywords: labour market, mobility, education
    JEL: I28 J24 J61
    Date: 2008–11
  6. By: Hans-Georg Petersen; Markus Kirchner
    Abstract: The paper sheds some light on the education returns in Germany in the post war period. After describing higher education in Germany the current stand of higher education financing within the single states is presented. In six states tuition fees will be introduced in 2007/08 and discussions are going on in even some more. In the second part of the paper an empirical analysis is done using longitudinal data from the German social pension system. The analysis over the whole lifecycle renders results which proof that the higher education advantages are quite remarkable and might be a justification for more intensified financing by tuition fees. But all this has to be embedded into an encompassing strategy of tax and social policy, especially to prevent a strengthened process of social selection, which would be counterproductive for an increased and highly qualified human capital in Germany.
    Keywords: education return, tuition fees, tertiary education, vocational education, human capital, lifetime income, income contingent loans
    JEL: J26 J24 J13 I28 I22 I21 H81 D14 D1
    Date: 2008–01
  7. By: Steve Bradley; Jim Taylor; Giuseppe Migali
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of two flagship education policies, the Specialist Schools initiative and the Excellence in Cities programme, on the attainment of secondary school pupils in England. The focus is on their relative impact across gender, ethnic and socio-economic groups. Using pupil-level data, we find, first, that the EiC programme has been substantially more effective than the specialist schools initiative in raising the attainment of ethnic minority pupils, particularly Asians. Second, the Specialist Schools initiative has favoured pupils from economically advantaged families whereas the EiC programme has been more effective in raising the attainment of pupils from poor families. Third, both policies have been more effective for girls than for boys, thereby contributing to the educational gender gap.
    Keywords: Ethnicity, Gender, Test scores, Excellence in Cities, Specialist schools
    Date: 2008
  8. By: Daniel O. Beltran; Kuntal K. Das; Robert W. Fairlie
    Abstract: Although computers are universal in the classroom, nearly twenty million children in the United States do not have computers in their homes. Surprisingly, only a few previous studies explore the role of home computers in the educational process. Home computers might be very useful for completing school assignments, but they might also represent a distraction for teenagers. We use several identification strategies and panel data from the two main U.S. datasets that include recent information on computer ownership among children--the 2000-2003 CPS Computer and Internet Use Supplements (CIUS) matched to the CPS Basic Monthly Files and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997--to explore the causal relationship between computer ownership and high school graduation and other educational outcomes. Teenagers who have access to home computers are 6 to 8 percentage points more likely to graduate from high school than teenagers who do not have home computers after controlling for individual, parental, and family characteristics. We generally find evidence of positive relationships between home computers and educational outcomes using several identification strategies, including controlling for typically unobservable home environment and extracurricular activities in the NLSY97, fixed effects models, instrumental variables, and including future computer ownership and falsification tests. Home computers may increase high school graduation by reducing non-productive activities, such as truancy and crime, among children in addition to making it easier to complete school assignments.
    Date: 2008
  9. By: Rouziès, Dominique; Onyemah, Vincent; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos
    Abstract: This study examines how cultural performance orientation moderates the influence of human resource management (HRM) controls on boundary-spanning employees’ behavioural strategies and satisfaction.
    Keywords: HRM control; national culture; performance orientation; boundary-spanning employees; salespeople
    JEL: O15
    Date: 2008–11–27
  10. By: Franck Tétard; Nicola Villa; Joanna Carlsson; Erkki Patokorpi; Milena Casagranda (DISA, Faculty of Economics, Trento University); Sara Tomasini
    Abstract: When young people drop out of school they are in great danger of being marginalized in society. Immigrants are another group of people who for several reasons often find it difficult to become integrated into their new home country. In both cases some less formal way of learning might help these groups avoid social exclusion. Well thoughtout development and application of new advanced technologies would be likely to level the way for continued education, communication and democratic participation in society. The term e-inclusion refers to these electronic means and how they could be applied to hindering social exclusion. This study compares the situation of school drop-outs and immigrants in Finland and Italy in the light of statistical data. It paves the way for a European research and development project whose aim is to study problems of e-inclusion in Finland and Italy empirically as well as develop technological and pedagogical solutions to them.
    Date: 2008–12
  11. By: Jeroen de Jong; Deanne Den Hartog
    Abstract: Although both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behavior (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, the measurement of employees' IWB is still in evolution. Here, we present two multi-source studies that aimed to develop and validate a measure of IWB. Four related dimensions of IWB are distinguished: opportunity exploration, idea generation, championing and application. We derived a tenitem measure of these IWB dimensions from a pilot survey among matched dyads of 81 professionals in a research institute and their supervisors. Next, a survey among a matching sample of 703 knowledge workers and their supervisors from 94 different firms was done. We used confirmatory factor analyses to examine convergent and discriminant validity, and hierarchical multilevel regression to test hypothesized relationships of IWB with participative leadership, external work contacts and innovative output (proposed as an initial nomological network). Results demonstrate strong convergent validity of the IWB measure as all four dimensions contribute to an overall measure of IWB. Support for discriminant validity is weaker as correlations between some dimensions are relatively high. Finally, IWB is positively related with participative leadership, external work contacts and innovative output, providing first evidence for nomological validity.
    Date: 2008–11–25
  12. By: Jarno Hoekman (Urban & Regional research centre Utrecht (URU), Utrecht University - The Netherlands); Koen Frenken (Urban & Regional research centre Utrecht (URU), Utrecht University - The Netherlands); Frank van Oort (Netherlands Institute for Spatial Research (RPB)- The Netherlands)
    Abstract: The geography of innovation traditionally concentrates on localised knowledge spillovers, yet neglects collaboration networks as a means to access knowledge outside the region. Using publication and patent data for 1316 regions in the EU27 plus Norway and Switzerland, we find that both localised knowledge spillovers and the knowledge spillovers stemming from collaboration affect the innovative performance of regions. The results provide support for EU policies aimed at creating European collaboration networks.
    Keywords: Knowledge Production Function, Spillovers, Collaboration, Networks, European Research Area, Publication, Patent, Public Good
    JEL: C21 O30 O33 O52 R11
    Date: 2008–09

This nep-hrm issue is ©2008 by Fabio Sabatini. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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