nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2008‒04‒12
seven papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
University of Rome, La Sapienza

  1. Inequality in Land Ownership, the Emergence of Human Capital Promoting Institutions and the Great Divergence By Galor, Oded; Moav, Omer; Vollrath, Dietrich
  2. Trading Population for Productivity: Theory and Evidence By Galor, Oded; Mountford, Andrew
  3. Human capital differentials across municipalities and states in Brazil By Bernardo L. Queiroz; André B. Golgher
  4. Education and political behaviour : evidence from the Catalan linguistic reform By Oriol Aspachs-Bracons; Irma Clots-Figueras; Paolo Masella
  5. Does education reduce the probability of being overweight? By Dinand Webbink; Nicholas G. Martin; Peter M. Visscher
  6. Brain Drained: A Tale of Two Countries By Ben-David, Dan
  7. Early school-leaving in the Netherlands By Traag Tanja; Velden Rolf K.W. van der

  1. By: Galor, Oded; Moav, Omer; Vollrath, Dietrich
    Abstract: This paper suggests that inequality in the distribution of land ownership adversely affected the emergence of human capital promoting institutions (e.g., public schooling) and thus the pace and the nature of the transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy, contributing to the emergence of the great divergence in income per capita across countries. The prediction of the theory regarding the adverse effect of the concentration of land ownership on education expenditure is established empirically based on evidence from the beginning of the 20th century in the US.
    Keywords: Geography; Great Divergence; Growth; Human capital; Institutions; Land Inequality
    JEL: O10 O40
    Date: 2008–03
  2. By: Galor, Oded; Mountford, Andrew
    Abstract: This research argues that the differential effect of international trade on the demand for human capital across countries has been a major determinant of the distribution of income and population across the globe. In developed countries the gains from trade have been directed towards investment in education and growth in income per capita, whereas a significant portion of these gains in less developed economies have been channelled towards population growth. Cross-country regressions establish that indeed trade has positive effects on fertility and negative effects on education in non-OECD economies, while inducing fertility decline and human capital formation in OECD economies.
    Keywords: Demographic Transition; Growth; Human Capital; International Trade
    JEL: F11 F43 J10 N30 O40
    Date: 2008–02
  3. By: Bernardo L. Queiroz (Cedeplar-UFMG); André B. Golgher (Cedeplar-UFMG)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the distribution of more educated and skilled people in Brazilian municipalities and states. Previous evidence shows a high concentration of college educated and high skilled workers in some areas of the country. We investigate whether the increase in the number of high skill workers is faster in municipalities with high initial levels of human capital than in municipalities with lower initial levels. We develop a theoretical model to explain the convergence/divergence of regional skill levels In Brazil. We estimate OLS models based on the theoretical model to explain empirically wage differentials in Brazil. Last, we compute standard segregation and isolation measures to show the trends in the distribution of skilled workers across states and cities in Brazil. We find that educated and qualified workers are concentrated in some areas of the country and recent decades show a higher concentration of them across states and cities.
    Keywords: human capital, segregation, regional differences, Brazil
    JEL: J21 J24 R23
    Date: 2008–03
  4. By: Oriol Aspachs-Bracons; Irma Clots-Figueras; Paolo Masella
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between schooling and political behaviour in ethnically divided societies. It draws on survey data from Catalonia to investigate how the introduction in 1983 of a bilingual education system affects political behaviour. Using within and between cohort variation in exposure to Catalan language at school, we find that individuals who have experienced greater exposure to teaching in Catalan are more likely to declare to have voted in 1999 regional elections and to have chosen a Catalanist party.
    Date: 2007–11
  5. By: Dinand Webbink; Nicholas G. Martin; Peter M. Visscher
    Abstract: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing rapidly in many countries. Education policies might be important for reducing this increase. This paper analyses the causal effect of education on the probability of being overweight by using longitudinal data of Australian identical twins. The data include self-reported and clinical measures of body size. Our crosssectional estimates confirm the well-known negative association between education and the probability of being overweight. For men we find that education also reduces the probability of being overweight within pairs of identical twins. The estimated effect of education on overweight status increases with age. Remarkably, for women we find no negative effect of education on body size when fixed family effects are taken into account. Identical twin sisters that differ in educational attainment do not systematically differ in body size. This finding is robust to differences in employment and number of children.
    Keywords: education; overweight; body size
    JEL: I12 I18 I20
    Date: 2008–04
  6. By: Ben-David, Dan
    Abstract: This paper provides a comparative examination of how public universities in two countries, the United States and Israel, have evolved over the past few decades - and how differences between the two have culminated in a rate of academic brain drain from the latter to the former that is unparalleled in the western world. The number of Israelis in the top 40 American departments in physics, chemistry, philosophy, computer science and economics, as a percentage of their remaining colleagues in Israel, is over twice the overall academic emigration rates (at all levels) from European countries. Signs of what is currently occurring in Israel have already begun to appear in other developed countries as well, though on a completely different scale - still - making the country an important case study that other countries should study, understand and prepare against a similar eventuality.
    Keywords: brain drain; higher education; migration
    JEL: A11 F22 H52 H83 I23 J31 J61 O15
    Date: 2008–02
  7. By: Traag Tanja; Velden Rolf K.W. van der (ROA rm)
    Abstract: The role of student-, family- and school factors for early school-leaving in lower secondary educationMost studies on early school-leaving address only partial causes of why some students leave school early. This study aims to develop a more elaborate model to explain early school-leaving in lower secondary education, taking into account individual, family and school factors at the same time. By using a longitudinal dataset we are able to attribute clear causal relations between the different factors. We distinguish four groups of school-leavers, separating ‘dropouts’ (those without any qualification) from those who left school after attaining a diploma in lower secondary education (‘low qualified’), those who pursued education as an apprentice (‘apprentices’) and the ones who continued education and received a full upper secondary qualification (‘full qualification). Discerning these four groups shows clear differences in the background of different types of early school-leavers and in the effects of school factors.
    Keywords: labour market entry and occupational careers;
    Date: 2008

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