nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2008‒04‒04
seven papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
University of Rome, La Sapienza

  1. New Technology, Human Capital and Growth for European Transitional Economies. By Cuong Le Van; Manh-Hung Nguyen; Thai Bao Luong; Tu Anh Nguyen
  2. Qualifying Religion: The Role of Plural Identities for Educational Production By Boppart, Timo; Falkinger, Josef; Grossmann, Volker; Woitek, Ulrich; Wüthrich, Gabriela
  3. Strength, Sources, and Temporal Development of Primary Effects of Families´ Social Status on Secondary School Choice By Stocké, Volker
  4. Corruption and Human Development By Ngoc Anh Tran
  5. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Strategies in ICT SMEs in Enlarged Europe (EU25) By Lal, Kaushalesh; Dunnewijk, Theo
  6. Social exclusion and the gender gap in education By Lewis, Maureen; Lockheed, Marlaine
  7. Alteration in Skills and Career-Enhancing in a Frictional Labor Market By Yosuke Oda

  1. By: Cuong Le Van (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne, Université Paris-1, CNRS - Paris School of Economics); Manh-Hung Nguyen (THEMA, Université Cergy-Pontoise); Thai Bao Luong (CEPN Université Paris 13); Tu Anh Nguyen (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne, Université Paris-1, CNRS)
    Abstract: We consider a transitional country with three sectors in economy: con- sumption goods, new technology, and education. Productivity of the con- sumption goods sector depends on new technology and skilled labor used for production of the new technology. Then there might be three stages of economic growth. In the first stage the country concentrates on produc- tion of consumption goods; in the second stage the country imports both physical capital and new technology capital; in the last stage the country imports new technology capital and invests in training and education of high skilled labor in the same time.
    Keywords: Optimal growth model, New technology capital, Human Capital, Developing country.
    JEL: D51 E13
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Boppart, Timo (University of Zurich); Falkinger, Josef (University of Zurich); Grossmann, Volker (University of Fribourg); Woitek, Ulrich (University of Zurich); Wüthrich, Gabriela (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of religious denomination for human capital formation. We employ a unique data set which covers, inter alia, information on numerous measures of school inputs in 169 Swiss districts for the years 1871/72, 1881/82 and 1894/95, marks from pedagogical examinations of conscripts (1875-1903), and results from political referenda to capture conservative or progressive values in addition to the cultural characteristics language and religion. Catholic districts show on average significantly lower educational performance than Protestant districts. However, accounting for other sociocultural characteristics qualifies the role of religion for educational production. The evidence suggests that Catholicism is harmful only in a conservative milieu. We also exploit information on absenteeism of pupils from school to separate provision of schooling from use of schooling.
    Keywords: culture, educational production, plural identity, religious denomination, school inputs
    JEL: I20 H52 O10 N33
    Date: 2008–03
  3. By: Stocké, Volker (Sonderforschungsbereich 504)
    Abstract: We analyze the relative importance of primary and secondary effects of both parents’ educational and occupational status on whether an upper or a less ambitious secondary school track is chosen after primary school in Germany. We compare standardized test scores, parents’ achievement beliefs, and teachers’ marks as conceptually different indicators for children’s academic competencies with respect to how completely they capture the strength and temporal development of primary effects. We found all measures, but in particular the teachers’ evaluations, to be strongly affected by the children’s social origin. Furthermore, teachers’ marks had the strongest effect on educational decisions, explained status differences in this respect to the largest extent, and proved to be the best single indicator for primary effects. However, each of the other measures and the children’s competency development in the past exert significant additional effects on the educational decision. The failure to take the full set of competency measures into account leads to a substantial underestimation of primary effects. Taking the cumulative effect of all competency indicators into account, we found 50 percent of the initially significant net-effects of the mothers’ education and 70 percent of the effects of their social class to be attributable to primary effects.
    Date: 2007–08–30
  4. By: Ngoc Anh Tran (PhD student in Public Policy at Harvard University)
    Abstract: Today, corruption has been recognized as one of the hardest obstacles to international development. It is specially challenging as corruption and underdevelopment mutually reinforces one another, creating a vicious cycle that traps many developing nations. As numerous efforts around the world fail to move countries out of this trap, it has also been recognized that political will is an essential prerequisite for any anti-corruption reform to succeed. Sadly, political will rarely emerges from any corrupt system. A big question remaining open in the literature and practice is: where does political will come from?
    Keywords: Corruption trap, Human capital, Social capital, Information capital
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Lal, Kaushalesh (UNU-MERIT); Dunnewijk, Theo (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Innovation strategies of entrepreneurs are mapped with growth and performance of their firms in this study. Findings of the study are based on the data collected from 1238 small ICT firms located in 25 member states of European Union. The survey was conducted during October 2006 and March 2007. Results of Logit analysis suggest that firms that pursued continuous innovation strategies experienced more employment growth, higher profitability, and better sales dynamics than those that adopted occasional innovation approach. Market growth of continuous innovating firms realized faster pace than other type of firms. Another distinguishing characteristic of two types of firms emerged is market preference. Target market of continuous innovating firms has been European or global markets while innovative activities of other firms targeted domestic market. The study concludes that European innovation policies should be focused towards continuous innovation activities with due attention at human resource development policies.
    Keywords: dynamic capabilities, continuous innovation, occasional innovation, competitiveness, human resources, internationalization
    JEL: O31 O32 O38 L25 L63 O15 J24
    Date: 2008
  6. By: Lewis, Maureen; Lockheed, Marlaine
    Abstract: Despite a sharp increase in the share of girls who enroll in, attend, and complete various levels of schooling, an educational gender gap remains in some countries. This paper argues that one explanation for this gender gap is the degree of social exclusion within these countries, as indicated by ethno-linguistic heterogeneity, which triggers both economic and psycho-social mechanisms to limit girls ' schooling. Ethno-linguistic heterogeneity initially was applied to explaining lagging economic growth, but has emerged in the literature more recently to explain both civil conflict and public goods. This paper is a first application of the concept to explain gender gaps in education. The paper discusses the importance of female education for economic and social development, reviews the evidence regarding gender and ethnic differences in schooling, reviews the theoretical perspectives of various social science disciplines that seek to explain such differences, and tests the relevance of ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity in explaining cross-country differences in school attainment and learning. The study indicates that within-country ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity partly explains both national female primary school completion rates and gender differences in these rates, but only explains average national learning outcomes when national income measures are excluded.
    Keywords: Primary Education,Education For All,Gender and Education,Population Policies,Disability
    Date: 2008–03–01
  7. By: Yosuke Oda (Graduate school of Economics, Osaka university)
    Abstract: This article constructs a job-search model in which workerfs ability varies over time; a highability unemployed might lose her skills due to prolonged unemployment whereas a low-ability employed might acquire her skills due to (an implicit) on-the-job training. We numerically show that both pecuniary reward for short-term unemployed and reduction in unemployment benefits leads to lower unemployment rate, however, the former policy does stimulate careerenhancing of long-term unemployed whereas the latter does not. In addition, numerical analysis suggests that mixture of the two policy can lead to higher aggregate welfare than under a sole policy.
    Keywords: job-search model; cyclical change in skills; career-enhancing separation
    JEL: J64 J68
    Date: 2008–03

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