nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2007‒12‒01
twelve papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
University of Rome, La Sapienza

  1. Skills Mismatch and Returns to Training in Australia:Some New Evidence By George Messinis; Nilss Olekalns
  2. Skills required for innovation: A review of the literature By Petr Hanel
  3. Human Rights and Human Development By Sakiko Fukuda-Parr
  4. Why Parents Worry: Initiation into Cannabis Use by Youth and their Educational Attainment By Jan C. van Ours; Jenny Williams
  5. Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School: A Cross-Subject Analysis with Student Fixed Effects By Charles T. Clotfelter; Helen F. Ladd; Jacob L. Vigdor
  6. Does Individual Performance Affect Entrepreneurial Mobility? Empirical Evidence from the Financial Analysis Market By Boris Groysberg; Ashish Nanda; M. Julia Prats
  7. Skilled Voices?: Reflections on Political Participation and Education in Austria By Florian Walter; Sieglinde Rosenberger
  8. Education and Civic Engagement: Review of Research and a Study on Norwegian Youths By Jon Lauglo; Tormod Óia
  9. Bolívar and the Millennium Development Goals By Espinosa Espinosa, Aarón; Alvis Arrieta, Jorge; Toro González, Daniel
  10. Information, School Choice, and Academic Achievement: Evidence from Two Experiments By Justine S. Hastings; Jeffrey M. Weinstein
  11. Do On-Line Labor Market Intermediaries Matter? The Impact of AlmaLaurea on the University-to-Work Transition By Manuel F. Bagues; Mauro Sylos Labini
  12. From “This Job Is Killing me” to “I Live in the life I Love and I Love the Life I Live”, or from Stakhanov to Contemporary Workaholics By Cunha, Miguel Pina e; Cardoso, Carlos Cabral; Rego, Armenio; Clegg, Stwart

  1. By: George Messinis; Nilss Olekalns
    Abstract: This paper utilises Australian data to evaluate the effect of firm-provided job training on labour income. It also examines whether training can shed light on the effects of skill-job mismatch. We employ the Heckman selection model to account for selection bias in training as well as work participation. The evidence shows that training has a significant positive impact on wages. Also, training ameliorates the disadvantage associated with the mismatch between formal education and required education. In addition, training is most valuable to the undereducated and young workers, and assists in the restoration and replenishment of human capital
    Keywords: Training; Education; Overeducation; Undereducation; Earnings; Human capital depreciation
    JEL: J24 J30 I21
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Petr Hanel (CIRST, GREDI, Faculte d'administration, Université de Sherbrooke)
    Abstract: This review of the innovation literature seeks to identify the role of skilled labor in the process of innovation and technological change. After an introduction of main innovation theories, the role of skills is analyzed from several perspectives: (1) Independent innovator – entrepreneur; skills deployed and needed; the role of education (2)Firm –the contribution of skilled labor to innovation from within the firm and from external sources. (3) Regional systems of innovation - Endowment of regions and cities in human resources, regional/local labour markets and knowledge spillovers (4) National systems of Innovation- national institutions and policies regarding human resources, labour markets, education system and various aspects of economic and technological infrastructure. (5) Technological milieu. - skilled labor involved in innovation evolves in various environments such as scientific, technical and trade associations, formal and informal contacts. (6) Scientific base.- The role of industry-university and public-private research collaboration in innovation. (7) Is innovation skill-biased?. The second part of the study looks at findings of recent studies of innovation and technology adoption in Canadian manufacturing and services with regard to skilled labor. Also addressed is the impact of innovation on skills. The shortage of skilled labor is widely recognised as an obstacle to innovation and adoption new technologies, especially by firms that introduce the most original innovations and the most advanced technologies. Overall, the innovation literature offers little in terms of concrete general information on particular skills needed for successful innovation. The paper concludes with a critical assessment of shortcomings of innovation and related surveys with regard to information on skilled labor and its role in innovation and technology adoption.
    Keywords: Innovation; skills; national innovation systems; labour market; education of innovation; effect of innovation on skills
    JEL: O31 J24 J44 L6 L8
    Date: 2007
  3. By: Sakiko Fukuda-Parr (The New School)
    Abstract: .
    Date: 2007–11
  4. By: Jan C. van Ours; Jenny Williams
    Abstract: In this paper we use individual level data from the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey to study the relationship between initiation into cannabis use and educational attainment. Using instrumental variable estimation and bivariate duration analysis we find that those initiating into cannabis use early in life are much more likely to dropout of school compared to those who start later on. Moreover, we find that the reduction in years of schooling depends on the age at which initiation occurs, and that it is larger for females than males.
    Keywords: cannabis use; age of initiation; educational attainment
    JEL: C41 D12 I19
    Date: 2007
  5. By: Charles T. Clotfelter; Helen F. Ladd; Jacob L. Vigdor
    Abstract: We use data on statewide end-of-course tests in North Carolina to examine the relationship between teacher credentials and student achievement at the high school level. The availability of test scores in multiple subjects for each student permits us to estimate a model with student fixed effects, which helps minimize any bias associated with the non-random distribution of teachers and students among classrooms within schools. We find compelling evidence that teacher credentials affect student achievement in systematic ways and that the magnitudes are large enough to be policy relevant. As a result, the uneven distribution of teacher credentials by race and socio-economic status of high school students -- a pattern we also document -- contributes to achievement gaps in high school.
    JEL: I21 J45
    Date: 2007–11
  6. By: Boris Groysberg; Ashish Nanda; M. Julia Prats
    Abstract: Our paper contributes to the studies on the relationship between workers' human capital and their decision to become self-employed as well as their probability to survive as entrepreneurs. Analysis from a panel data set of research analysts in investment banks over 1988-1996 reveals that star analysts are more likely than non-star analysts to become entrepreneurs. Furthermore, we find that ventures started by star analysts have a higher probability of survival than ventures established by non-star analysts. Extending traditional theories of entrepreneurship and labor mobility, our results also suggest that drivers of turnover vary by destination: (a) turnover to entrepreneurship and (b) other turnover. In contrast to turnover to entrepreneurship, star analysts are less likely to move to other firms than non-star analysts.
    JEL: J24 J4 J6 J63
    Date: 2007–11
  7. By: Florian Walter; Sieglinde Rosenberger
    Abstract: This study, part of OECD/CERI's project on Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning, investigates the relationship between educational attainment and political participation in Austria. First, a model based on various theoretical considerations is introduced. This incorporates direct educational effects as well as indirect effects that occur through material resources, social capital, civic orientations and values. Using a multivariate analytical approach the model is applied to the 2002 European Social Survey. Three forms of political participation are distinguished, namely voting, elite-directed and elite-challenging activities. Educational attainment is found to have significant effects on all three types but the strongest impact is on elite-challenging activities. The latter includes forms of political action such as signing petitions and buying or boycotting certain products which are increasingly accepted as a legitimate way to express one's political preferences. Most of the effects of education arise through intermediate variables, including social capital (especially affiliation with non-political organisations), civic orientations (political interest as well as internal and external efficacy) and individual (postmaterialist) values. The effect of education on elite-directed activity operated primarily through organisational affiliation, as well as internal and external efficacy. In contrast, the effect of education on elite-challenging activity seems to be fostered via social environments that combine high levels of political interest, interpersonal trust, postmaterialist values and a certain degree of scepticism against political institutions. The paper concludes with suggestions for policy and research. <BR>Ce rapport, publié dans le cadre du projet « Mesurer les retombées sociales de l'éducation », étudie la relation entre niveau d'instruction et participation politique en Autriche. Dans un premier temps, il présente un modèle basé sur diverses considérations théoriques. Cela comprend à la fois les effets éducatifs directs et indirects qui se produisent en fonction des ressources matérielles, du capital social, des orientations civiques et des valeurs. A partir d'une approche analytique à plusieurs variables, le modèle est appliqué à l'Enquête Sociale Européenne de 2002. On distingue trois formes de participation politique, à savoir le vote, les activités conduites par l'élite et celles contestant l'élite. On s'aperçoit que le niveau d'instruction a des effets significatifs sur ces trois formes de participation, et plus particulièrement sur les activités contestant l'élite. Ces dernières incluent des actions politiques telles que la signature de pétitions, l'achat ou le boycott de certains produits, actions qui sont de plus en plus considérées comme une façon légitime d'exprimer ses préférences politiques. La plupart des effets de l'éducation se produisent au moyen de variables intermédiaires, notamment le capital social (et plus particulièrement l'affiliation à des organisations apolitiques), les orientations civiques (l'intérêt politique tout comme l'efficacité interne ou externe) et les valeurs (post-matérialistes) individuelles. L'éducation exerce un impact sur les activités conduites par l'élite principalement via l'affiliation à des organisations, et via l'efficacité interne et externe. Quant aux effets de l'éducation sur les activités contestant l'élite, ils s'exercent par le biais de l'environnement social qui inclut à la foi un niveau élevé d'intérêt politique, la confiance interpersonnelle, des valeurs post-matérialistes et un certain degré de scepticisme vis-à-vis des institutions politiques. En conclusion, ce rapport fait des recommandations en matière de politique et de recherche.
    Date: 2007–11–23
  8. By: Jon Lauglo; Tormod Óia
    Abstract: What difference does education make for young adults' engagement in politics and social issues? This study is part of the OECD?s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) project on "Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning" (SOL). It discusses relevant international research, with special attention to studies in the Nordic countries, and analyses survey responses by more than 11 000 Norwegian youths aged 13 to 19. "Engagement" is defined as youth's declared interest in politics and social issues and by their participation in various forms of political activity. Educational performance and especially educational aspirations matter for this type of engagement. Socialisation in family environments with regard to civic related issues, however, matters even more for taking interest in such types of civic engagement. It also seems that young people experience educational benefits from growing up in families who care about the civic domain. Separately, the findings suggest that young people who are politically active do not easily conform to the status quo. Rather, they confront the authority structures of their schools more often than other young people do. The paper concludes with suggestions for policy and research. <BR>Quel est l'impact de l'éducation sur l'engagement politique et social des jeunes adultes ? Ce rapport, publié dans le cadre du projet « Mesurer les retombées sociales de l'éducation » du Centre pour la recherche et l'innovation de l'OCDE (CERI), traite de la recherche internationale en la matière, et plus particulièrement dans les pays nordiques, et analyse les réponses à une enquête menée auprès de plus de 11 000 Norvégiens âgés de 13 à 19 ans. Par « engagement » on entend l'intérêt déclaré des jeunes pour les problèmes politiques et sociaux ainsi que leur participation à diverses formes d'action politique. Les performances éducatives, et notamment les aspirations scolaires, ont une importance dans ce type d'engagement. Mais la socialisation aux problèmes civiques au sein des familles compte pour bien plus dans l'intérêt porté à l'engagement civique. Également, les jeunes semblent retirer des bénéfices éducatifs du fait de grandir dans des familles intéressées par les questions civiques. D'un autre côté, 'étude suggère que les jeunes qui sont politiquement actifs ne s'accommodent pas du statu quo ; ils ont tendance à se confronter aux autorités de leurs établissements plus souvent que les autres. En conclusion, le rapport fait des recommandations en matière de politique et de recherche.
    Date: 2007–11–23
  9. By: Espinosa Espinosa, Aarón; Alvis Arrieta, Jorge; Toro González, Daniel
    Abstract: In spite the notorious advances made by some countries in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals promoted by the UNDP, the advance within the countries, particularly in their different regions is unknown. This report pretends to show a base line of this project for the Bolívar department, and suggest some policy advices in order to achieve the 2015 goals.
    Keywords: Desarrollo humano; human development; Bolívar; Metas del Milenio; ODM; UNDP; Millennium Development Goals
    JEL: R10 I31 Q28
    Date: 2007–11–27
  10. By: Justine S. Hastings; Jeffrey M. Weinstein
    Abstract: There is growing empirical evidence that low-income parents place lower weights on academics when choosing schools, implying that school choice plans may have the smallest impact on the choices of the families they are targeting. This paper uses a natural experiment generated by the 2004 implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public School District (CMS) and a field experiment we designed and implemented as part of the district's 2006 school choice plan to examine how transparent information on school-level academic performance affects the test scores of the schools parents choose and the subsequent impact on their children's academic outcomes. We find in both cases that providing parents with transparent information on the academic achievement at schools with their school choice forms results in significantly more parents choosing substantially higher-performing schools. We then use instrumental variables approaches, exploiting random variation generated by each experiment in the test score of the school attended to estimate the impact of attending a higher-scoring school on student academic outcomes. We find that attending higher-performing schools results in significant increases in their children's standardized test scores at the end of the first year. If the results we find represent permanent increases in student-level test scores, they suggest a small policy change that lowers information or decision making costs for these parents had a substantial monetary impact on their children's lifetime earnings, adding to growing evidence that small changes in information can greatly affect choices, program participation, and outcomes.
    JEL: D83 H0 I2 I28
    Date: 2007–11
  11. By: Manuel F. Bagues; Mauro Sylos Labini
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of the availability of electronic labor markets on the university-to-work transition. In particular, we analyze the effect of the intermediation activity carried on by the inter-university consortium, AlmaLaurea, on graduates' labor market outcomes. The different timing of universities' enrolment in AlmaLaurea allows us to apply the difference-in-differences method to a repeated cross section data set. If the usual assumption concerning parallel outcomes holds, AlmaLaurea reduces the individual unemployment probability and improves matching quality. Interestingly, we also find that on-line intermediaries foster graduates' geographic mobility.
    JEL: J64 J68 O3
    Date: 2007–11
  12. By: Cunha, Miguel Pina e; Cardoso, Carlos Cabral; Rego, Armenio; Clegg, Stwart
    Abstract: F. W. Taylor is often celebrated as a founding father of organization and management theory, one whose commitment to efficiency is legendary. If we define efficiency in terms of maximizing output from a given – or lesser – number of workers it can be considered that, in some cases, Taylor’s science has achieved a remarkable success. Contemporary organizations managed to create such a state of commitment (be it spontaneous or imposed), that people have adopted excessive working as lifestyle. Life is organized around work, with work occupying more and more territory from the former private life. We discuss the notion of excessive working, present several forms of excessive working, contest the idea that excessive working is necessarily noxious, suggest a dynamic understanding of the different forms of excessive working, and challenge researchers critically to discuss their practical success. As the saying goes, there can be too much of a good thing.
    Date: 2007

This nep-hrm issue is ©2007 by Fabio Sabatini. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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