nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2006‒12‒22
four papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Universita degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza

  1. Human Resources, theLabour Market andEconomic Performance By Romesh Vaitilingam
  2. The Early Career Gender Wage Gap By Sami Napari
  3. School choice and student achievement – new evidence on open-enrolment By Söderström, Martin
  4. Can migration reduce educational attainments? Depressing evidence from Mexico By David McKenzie; Hillel Rapoport

  1. By: Romesh Vaitilingam
    Date: 2006–09
  2. By: Sami Napari
    Abstract: In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labormarket entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paperfocuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates andconsiders several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory,job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation ofexperience and in the type of education explain about 16 percent of the average gender wagegap that emerges during the first 11 years after labor market entry among universitygraduates. Differences in employer characteristics between male and female graduatesaccount about 10 percent for the average early career gender wage gap. In all genderdifferences in background characteristics explain about 27 percent of the average early careerwage differences between male and female university graduates. The most important singlefactor contributing to the gender wage gap is the family type. Women seem to sufferconsiderable larger wage losses due to marriage and children than men.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, early career
    JEL: J24 J31 J7
    Date: 2006–08
  3. By: Söderström, Martin (Uppsala University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of open-enrolment on student performance in the context of an admission reform in Stockholm. Before 2000, students had priority to the public upper secondary school situated closest to where they lived, but from the fall of 2000 and onwards, admission is based on grades only. The reform imposed strong incentives for school competition: all students can apply to all schools, there is no targeting of students to schools, and funding follows the students. It is shown that the students in Stockholm perform no better with increased choice availability. In fact, high ability students seem to perform worse after the reform.
    Keywords: School choice; open-enrolment
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2006–12–04
  4. By: David McKenzie (Development Research Group, World Bank); Hillel Rapoport (Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan University, CADRE, University of Lille II, and Stanford Center for International Development)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of migration on educational attainments in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, we find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainments of 12 to 18 year-old boys and of 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit results show that living in a migrant household lowers the chances of boys completing junior high-school and of boys and girls completing high-school. The negative effect of migration on schooling is somewhat mitigated for younger girls with low educated mothers, which is consistent with remittances relaxing credit constraints on education investment for the very poor. However, for the majority of rural Mexican children, family migration depresses educational attainment. Comparison of the marginal effects of migration on school attendance and on participation to other activities shows that the observed decrease in schooling of 16 to 18 year olds is accounted for by current migration of boys and increases in housework for girls.
    Keywords: Migration, migrant networks, education attainments, Mexico
    JEL: O15 J61 D31
    Date: 2006–03

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