nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2006‒12‒04
seven papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Universita degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza

  1. Gender Inequality in Education: Impact on Income, Growth and Development By Moheyuddin, Ghulam
  2. Entrepreneurship by circumstances and abilities: the mediating role of job satisfaction and moderating role of self-efficacy By Wong, Poh Kam; Lee, Lena; Leung, Aegean
  3. Venture capitalism as a mechanism for knowledge governance By Antonelli Cristiano
  4. Can over-education account for the positive association between education and within-groups wage inequality? A note By Budria, Santiago
  5. Cluster dynamics and innovation in SMEs: the role of culture By Callegati Enrico; Grandi Silvia
  6. The resurrection on the Italian wage curve By Maida Agata; Devicienti Francesco; Pacelli Lia
  7. Education, Employment and Earnings of Secondary School and University Leavers in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracer Study By Al-Samarrai, Samer; Reilly, Barry

  1. By: Moheyuddin, Ghulam
    Abstract: This Paper explains the causes of the Gender Inequality of education and analyze how the gender inequality in education impacts the economic growth & development, investment and population growth etc. The paper finds that the gender inequality in education is as an endogenous variable and show that it can be explained to a considerable extent by religious preference, regional factors, and civil freedom. For some of these variables, the direction of the effect depends on the particular measure of inequality. The fact that these variables systematically explain gender differentials in education and health suggests that low investment in women’s human capital is not simply an efficient economic choice for developing countries.
    Keywords: Gender Inequality in Education; Growth; Investment; Development; Gender Inequality
    JEL: J16
    Date: 2005–11
  2. By: Wong, Poh Kam; Lee, Lena; Leung, Aegean
    Abstract: Prior studies have found that job dissatisfaction and self-efficacy are significant factors influencing individuals’ entrepreneurial propensity. Existing literature on entrepreneurship often regards job dissatisfaction as an entrepreneurial push factor and self-efficacy as an entrepreneurial pull factor. The argument is that individuals who are dissatisfied with their jobs are more likely to seek alternative mode of employment such as self-employment. In other words, poor job circumstances may push individuals to leave their paid employment to start their own businesses. On the other hand, personal abilities such as self-efficacy may pull individuals toward starting their own businesses in areas where they are confident and competent in. Despite the importance of job dissatisfaction and self-efficacy for new venture creation, few if any studies have examined the entrepreneurial phenomena from a holistic perspective. Utilizing concepts from the P-E fit and self-efficacy literatures, this paper argues that the path to entrepreneurship is a multi-faceted interactive process between individuals’ personal attributes and their work environment. We specifically examined how IT professional’s personal attributes such as innovation orientation and self-efficacy condition individuals for an entrepreneurial career in unsatisfactory work environments.
    JEL: M2
    Date: 2006
  3. By: Antonelli Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Venture capitaIism-an outcome of the ICT Revolution, which made its appearance first in the US during the late 1970s and early 1980s and then in other countries including Israel during the 1990s-, explains the new pervasive role of smaIl firms in the introduction of technologicàl innovations. We elaborate the interpretative hypothesis that venture capitalism is based upon the identification of economies of scope in the transactions of technological knowledge bundled with managerial competence, reputation, screening procedures and equity and transformed into knowledge-intensive property rights that are traded in new specialized financial markets. We argue that this model is part of a broader change in national system of innovation of advanced countries, and it is a powerful mechanism for the production, dissemination and integration of knowledge in advanced capitalistic economies, and thereby a main driver of 'knowledge-based' growth.
    Date: 2006–04
  4. By: Budria, Santiago
    Abstract: International evidence shows that returns to education are increasing when moving up along the wage distribution. While researchers have focused on the inequality implications of this finding, little attention has been paid to its causes. This paper asks whether the over-education phenomenon is responsible for the observed pattern. To that purpose, recent data from the European Community Household Panel and several measures of over-education based on the worker’s self-assessment are used. The results show that over-education is not a convincing explanation.
    Keywords: Returns to education; over-education; quantile regression
    JEL: C29 D31
    Date: 2005
  5. By: Callegati Enrico; Grandi Silvia
    Abstract: The territorial agglomeration of interdependent enterprises has a positive influence on the competitiveness, the performance and the development of national economies. This is a widely accepted intuition in economie theory, and it dates back to the works of Alfred Marshall. In particular, these phenomena have been depicted through the theoretical framework of the "IndustriaI Districts". Another signifieant impulse to the debate was provided by the GREMI (Groupe de Recherche Européen sur les Milieux Innovateurs), through the concepì of milieu innovateur. Later, Michael Porter's studies and dissemination works granted great visibility to the dynamics of agglomeration of industries, which since then afe better known among policy makers as "clusters". At any rate, the importance of the cultural element in the concepts of "cluster", milieu, and "district" is undeniable. This is evident also when observing the phenomenon from a historieal perspective. Evidence shows that the strength of a loeal economie system, and its eapacity to grow and 10 innovate, afe closely related 10 the pattern of knowledge (thus cultural) stratifieation, to the territory itself and to learning eapacity. Moreover, one can observe that cultural socio­economie elements afe embedded in technology, thus they play a key role when considering the dynamics of innovation process and growth opportunities for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). With this respect, the paper wìll present some relevant case studies of technical assistance earried out by in the field of industriai cooperation with several non-ED Mediterranean countries. In particular, the paper will present those case studies where initiatives were sei up with a view 10 encourage cluster dynamics in regions (i.e. Aleppo, Syria or Yazd, Iran), where the main sector of activity (textile and clothing industry) is his1orically and culturally based. In particular, several factors were involved, such as the cohesion of stakeholders for the creation of innovation, the development of new products, and the competìtive advantages for the loeal productìve system. The project approach and its conclusions confirm the fundamental role of culture and culture-based activities in the process of economie development, especially when considering SMEs, where culture represents both an embedded strategie foundatìon for the creation of cluster dynamics, and a signifieant potential for their future development affecting innovation trajectories.
    Date: 2005–03
  6. By: Maida Agata (University of Turin); Devicienti Francesco; Pacelli Lia
    Abstract: We show that the Italian wage curve, inexistent in the eighties and early nineties, has re­emerged after the 1993 Income Policy Agreements, owing to the greater mIe granted to fiexible and Iocally bargained top-up wage components.
    Date: 2005–02
  7. By: Al-Samarrai, Samer; Reilly, Barry
    Abstract: The empirical evidence on the earnings of educated groups in Tanzania is limited. This study uses a recently completed tracer survey of secondary school completers to analyse the impact of educational qualifications on labour market earnings. Our findings suggest that the rates of return to the highest educational qualifications for wage employees are not negligible and, at the margin, provide an investment incentive. However, we find little evidence of human capital effects in the earnings determination process for the self-employment sector. Information contained in the tracer survey allowed the introduction of controls for father’s educational background and a set of school fixed effects designed to proxy for school quality and potential labour market network effects. Our analysis reveals that the inclusion of these controls in the earnings determination process is important and tends to reduce the estimated rates of return to educational qualifications. A comparison of our results with the available evidence from other countries in the region suggest that despite an extremely small secondary and university education system the private rates of return to education in the Tanzanian wage employment sector are comparatively low.
    Keywords: education; labour markets; school leavers
    JEL: J31 I2
    Date: 2006

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