nep-hrm New Economics Papers
on Human Capital and Human Resource Management
Issue of 2006‒08‒19
four papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Universita degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza

  1. Apprenticeship in Europe: Fading or Flourishing? By Hilary Steedman
  2. Changes in Returns to Education in Latin America: the Role of Demand and Supply of Skills By M Manacorda; Carolina Sanchez-Paramo; Norbert Schady
  3. Entrepreneurship in Brazil, China, and Russia By Simeon Djankov; Yingyi Qian; Gerard Roland; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya
  4. Diffusion on social networks By Jackson, Matthew O.; Yariv, Leeat

  1. By: Hilary Steedman
    Abstract: This paper sets out the extent and defining characteristics of apprenticeship in Europe. Apprenticeship is thensituated within the wider context of European provision for education and training of 16-19 year olds and asimple typology is proposed and explained. The German-speaking dual system countries are characterised ashigh employer commitment countries with minimal integration of apprenticeship into full-time 16-19 provisionand weak links with tertiary education. The UK, the Netherlands and France are characterised as havingrelatively low levels of employer commitment but greater integration of apprenticeship into full-time provisionand stronger links between apprenticeship and tertiary level provision. Recent evidence on the extent to whichboth apprenticeship models improve employment probabilities is reviewed and pressures on the twoapprenticeship models resulting from increasingly competitive global markets and consequent changing skillneeds are examined. A final section discusses whether apprenticeship in Europe can adapt to and survive thesepressures.
    Keywords: apprenticeship, dual system, school to work transition
    JEL: I J24
    Date: 2005–12
  2. By: M Manacorda; Carolina Sanchez-Paramo; Norbert Schady
    Abstract: Changes in the relative wages of workers with different amounts of education have profound implications fordeveloping countries, where initial levels of inequality are often very high. In this paper we use micro data forfive Latin American countries over the 1980s and 1990s to document trends in men's returns to education, andto estimate whether the changes in skill premia we observe can be explained by supply or demand factors. Wepropose a model of demand for skills with three production inputs, and we allow the elasticity of substitutionbetween the different educational inputs to be different using a nested CES function. Using this model, weshow that the dramatic expansion in secondary school in many countries in Latin America depressed the wagesof workers with secondary school. We also show that there have been sharp increases in the demand for moreskilled workers in the region.
    Keywords: returns to education, demand and supply of skills
    JEL: J23 J24 O15
    Date: 2005–12
  3. By: Simeon Djankov (the World Bank); Yingyi Qian (UC Berkeley and NBER); Gerard Roland (UC Berkeley and CEPR); Ekaterina Zhuravskaya (New Economic School/CEFIR and CEPR)
    Abstract: We study the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur in Russia, China, and Brazil, using unique survey data at the individual level. We find that entrepreneurs have many common characteristics relative to non-entrepreneurs in all three countries. They are more likely to have entrepreneurs among their relatives and friends, place a higher value on work, are happier and perceive themselves as more successful. There are also a few important differences. Russian and Chinese entrepreneurs are more mobile geographically and across jobs. In Brazil, on the contrary, entrepreneurs are less mobile across jobs and industries. Brazil entrepreneurs have higher trust than non-entrepreneurs, while in Russia and China this is not the case. Finally, we confirm that perceptions of institutional environment are an important determinant of individual decisions to expand business.
    Date: 2006–07
  4. By: Jackson, Matthew O.; Yariv, Leeat

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