nep-hpe New Economics Papers
on History and Philosophy of Economics
Issue of 2023‒05‒22
seven papers chosen by
Erik Thomson
University of Manitoba

  1. A Comment on Maria Pia Paganelli’s Mistaken Treatment of Adam Smith’s “Four Stages” Theory of Economic Development By Ahiakpor, James C.W.
  2. Was Smith a Stage Theorist? A response to Ahiakpor By Paganelli, Maria Pia
  3. Glaserian Grounded Theory and Straussian Grounded Theory: Two Standard Qualitative Research Approaches in Social Science By Mohajan, Devajit; Mohajan, Haradhan
  4. Review of Jon D. Erickson, The Progress Illusion: Reclaiming Our Future from the Fairytale of Economics, Washington, DC, Island Press, 2022, xx + 252 pp., hb, ISBN 978-1-64-283252-5 By Alexandru Pătruți
  5. Repenser l'économie du travail By Jean-Luc Gaffard
  6. Compte rendu de "The Economic Weapon. The Rise of Sanctions as a Tool of Modern War" By Jérôme Sgard
  7. Inventing Conditionality, Exploring Its Politics (1946-1958) By Jérôme Sgard

  1. By: Ahiakpor, James C.W.
    Abstract: Paganelli (2022) casts doubt on whether Adam Smith argues a “Four Stages” theory or a “stadial model” of socio-economic development; she dismisses the usefulness of cross-section data to evaluate Smith’s theory of the evolution of economies; and she misinterprets several texts in the Wealth of Nations. Disregarding more accurate interpreters of Smith, she invites us to inquire again into the causes of the wealth of nations since Smith, in her judgment, has failed in that effort. But Smith’s Wealth of Nations, carefully read, is an essential guide to policy formulation to promote the efficient development of economies. My comment clarifies.
    Date: 2023–04–20
  2. By: Paganelli, Maria Pia
    Abstract: (Letter to the editor). James Ahiakpor claims I am incorrect in my reading of Smith when I suggest that Smith may not endorse, or may even reject, a four stages of development model, given his absence of historical example of any country that developed following the four stages, but rather his descriptions of different ages looks more likely like a taxonomy to describe different types of societies. I very much appreciate the time and energy Ahiakpor put on my work and I have no qualm about his reading of my paper. Since I was asked to reply to his detailed comments, I will. But only in a general, methodological, way.
    Date: 2023–04–20
  3. By: Mohajan, Devajit; Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: Grounded theory (GT) has appeared as a popular research approach in many branches of social science that acts for the well-being of society. It is an inductive methodology and focuses on the discovery of theory from data. Overtimes the original grounded theory of Barney Galland Glaser (1930-2022) and Anselm Leonard Strauss (1916-1996) has evolved, and two grounded theory variants: Glaserian grounded theory and Straussian grounded theory have emerged as qualitative approaches. When a novice qualitative researcher starts data collection on grounded theory; s/he cannot identify the differences between the two approaches. In this paper, some of the key differences and similarities between the two methods are illustrated. So, a confused researcher can easily select the desired grounded theory for his/her research version. In this study, an attempt has been taken to continue the grounded theory research smoothly when novice researchers face uncertainty during the research procedure.
    Keywords: Qualitative approach, Glaserian grounded theory, Straussian grounded theory, novice researcher
    JEL: A13 A14 B54 D6 I31
    Date: 2023–02–16
  4. By: Alexandru Pătruți (Bucharest University of Economic Studies)
    Abstract: Review of Jon D. Erickson, The Progress Illusion: Reclaiming Our Future from the Fairytale of Economics
    Date: 2023–04–13
  5. By: Jean-Luc Gaffard (OFCE Sciences-Po; Université Côte d'Azur; GREDEG CNRS; Institut Universitaire de France)
    Abstract: L'opposition entre une théorie de l'équilibre et une théorie de l'évolution pour traiter de la question du travail et de l'emploi est révélatrice de philosophies de la connaissance distinctes, l'une se référant à une réalité préexistante, l'autre attentive à l'expérience sans a priori. Rechercher la solidité des emplois et la viscosité des salaires n'a de sens qu'au regard des conséquences que l'on en attend en termes de viabilité d'une évolution dont il n'est pas possible de connaître les contours a priori. Cette conception du travail s'oppose à celle qui voudrait qu'existe et soit connu préalablement un état optimal de l'économie et de la société auquel serait attaché la fluidité des emplois et la flexibilité des salaires.
    Keywords: emploi, flexibilité, salaire, travail
    JEL: B40 J01 J08
    Date: 2022–06
  6. By: Jérôme Sgard (CERI - Centre de recherches internationales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Compte rendu de l'ouvrage de Nicholas Mulder, "The Economic Weapon. The Rise of Sanctions as a Tool of Modern War", New Heaven, Londres, Yale University Press, 2022. xiv-434 pages.
    Keywords: sanctions économiques, entre-deux-guerres, ordre international
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Jérôme Sgard (CERI - Centre de recherches internationales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The conflict between Keynes and White, in the run-up to the 1944 Bretton Woods conference, left the IMF with a substantial capital, though without a rule-book on how to lend. The literature then insists on the introduction of the Stand-By Arrangement (1953), which remains till today the Fund's workhorse lending vehicle. Yet, the literature ignores the second step of the re-invention: policy conditionality, hence the capacity for the IMF to suspend lending when countries diverge from their pre-agreed economic objectives. This book chapter analyzes this brake-through, in the case of a policy loans to Paraguay and Bolivia, in 1956-1958. It then shows how this innovation triggered within a few years: 1/ a redefinition of the IMF as a crisis manager, in an entirely novel relation to borrowing countries; 2/ a full realignment of the relationship between the staff, the management and the key member-states, primarily the US; 3/ the adoption of a new economic framework, known as the monetary approach to the balance of payment; 4/ in parallel, the exploration of the legal and political consequences of defining the Stand-By as a non-contractual transaction, adequate to a relation to self-standing sovereign states.
    Keywords: IMF, conditionality, debt crisis
    Date: 2023

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